Abstract

We present a periodically segmented waveguide Fabry-Pérot interferometer (PSW-FPI) intended to be used for tagless real-time chemical/ biological sensing through bulk-material interaction. The differential sensor detects changes in the refractive index (RI) of a sample regardless of its absolute RI value. Experiments with a series of sucrose solutions of various concentrations are compared with theoretical results, and a very good match is found between the two. The theoretical sensitivity limit for a 50-dB-signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) measurement system is estimated as δn = 3·10<sup>-7</sup>. For a 29-dB-SNR measurement system, a measured sensitivity limit of δn = 4·10<sup>-5</sup> is comparable with the previously reported sensitivities of label-free real-time optical biosensors (2·10<sup>-5</sup> -5·10<sup>-5</sup>). However, the total required sensing length (720 µm) of our PSW-FPI sensor is much shorter than that of the previously reported devices (9-20 mm).

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  25. J. Dakin and B. Culshaw, Optical Fiber Sensors, Boston, MA: Artech House, 1997.

Other (25)

A. Bange, H. B. Halsall and W. R. Heineman, "Microfluidic immunosensor systems", Biosens. Bioelectron., vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2488-2503, Jun. 2005.

B. Schmidt, V. Almeida, C. Manolatou, S. Preble and M. Lipson, "Nanocavity in a silicon waveguide for ultrasensitive nanoparticle detection", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, no. 21, pp. 4854-4856, Nov. 2004.

M. Seydack, "Nanoparticle labels in immunosensing using optical detection methods", Biosens. Bioelectron., vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2454-2469, Jun. 2005.

G. Gauglitz, "Direct optical sensors: Principles and selected applications", Anal. Bioanal. Chem., vol. 381, no. 1, pp. 141-155, Jan. 2005.

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, C. Dominguez, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman and J. Greve, "The realization of an integrated Mach-Zehnder waveguide immunosensor in silicon technology", Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 40, no. 2/3, pp. 147-153, May 1997.

B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff and N. Fabricius, "Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 583-592, Apr. 1998.

F. Brosinger, H. Freimuth, M. Lacher, W. Ehrfeld, E. Gedig, A. Katerkamp, F. Spener and K. Cammann, "A label-free affinity sensor with compensation of unspecific protein interaction by a highly sensitive integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer on silicon", Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 44, no. 1-3, pp. 350-355, Oct. 1997.

Y. Liu, P. Hering and M. O. Scully, "An integrated optical sensor for measuring glucose concentration", Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem., vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 18-23, Jan. 1992.

Z. Weissman, E. Brand, S. Ruschin and D. Goldberg, "Segmented waveguides and their applications for biosensing", SPIE, vol. 3936, pp. 284-292, 2000.

F. Prieto, B. Sepulveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya and L. M. Lechuga, "An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications", Nanotechnol., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 907-912, Aug. 2003.

J. van Lith, P. V. Lambeck, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, R. G. Heideman and R. R. Wijn, "The segmented waveguide sensor: Principle and experiments", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 355-363, Jan. 2005.

J. L. Elster, M. E. Jones, M. K. Evans, S. M. Lenahan, C. A. Boyce, W. Velander and R. VanTassell, "Optical fiber extrinsic Fabry-Pérot interferometric (EFPI)-based biosensors", SPIE, vol. 3911, pp. 105-112, 2000.

P. Yeh, A. Yariv and C.-S. Hong, "Electromagnetic propagation in periodic stratified media. I. General theory", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 423-438, Apr. 1977.

D. Ortega, J. M. Aldariz, J. M. Arnold and J. S. Aitchison, "Analysis of ‘quasi-modes’ in periodically segmented waveguides", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 369-375, Feb. 1999.

M. Oron, M. Katz, A. Zussman, D. Eger and A. Shahna, "Bragg reflection in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 76, no. 11, pp. 7519-7523, Dec. 1994.

J. A. Besley, N. N. Akhmediev and P. D. Miller, "Periodic optical waveguides: Exact floquet theory and spectral properties", Stud. Appl. Math., vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 343-355, 1998.

C. S. Hsiao and L. Wang, "Design for beam splitting components employing silicon-on-insulator rib waveguide structures", Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 23, pp. 3153-3155, Dec. 2005.

R. E. Kunz, "Miniature integrated optical modules for chemical and biochemical sensing", Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 38/39, no. 1-3, pp. 13-28, Jan./Feb. 1997.

J. Piehler, A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, M. Zerlin, C. Maul, R. Thiericke and S. Grabley, "Label-free monitoring of DNA-Ligand interactions", Anal. Biochem., vol. 249, no. 1, pp. 94-102, Jun. 1997.

S. Busse, V. Scheumann, B. Menges and S. Mittler, "Sensitivity studies for specific binding reactions using the biotin/streptavidin system by evanescent optical methods", Biosens. Bioelectron., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 704-710, Aug. 2002.

A. B. Djurisic and B. V. Stanic, "Modeling the temperature dependence of the index of refraction of liquid water in the visible and the near-ultraviolet ranges by a genetic algorithm", Appl. Opt., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 11-17, Jan. 1999.

D. R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 2004.

B. H. Schneider, E. L. Dickinson, M. D. Vach, J. V. Hoijer and L. V. Howard, "Optical chip immunoassay for hCG in human whole blood", Biosens. Bioelectron., vol. 15, no. 11/12, pp. 597-604, Dec. 2000.

B. Y. Shew, C. H. Kuo, Y. C. Huang and Y. H. Tsai, "UV-LIGA interferometer biosensor based on the SU-8 optical waveguide", Sens. Actuators A, Phys., vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 383-389, May 2005.

J. Dakin and B. Culshaw, Optical Fiber Sensors, Boston, MA: Artech House, 1997.

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