Abstract

The waveguide structure of graded-index plastic optical fibers (GI POFs), such as index profile, numerical aperture (NA), and core diameter, is appropriately designed for eliminating bending losses, even under a severe bending condition. The bending loss of GI POFs under a severe bending condition is drastically reduced when the core diameter is smaller than 200 µm and when the NA is higher than 0.25. The bending loss of GI POFs even under a severe bending condition vanishes with a core diameter of 200 µm and an NA of 0.24. It is experimentally confirmed for the first time that the mode coupling due to the bending induces the bending loss. The mode coupling strength before the fiber is bent affects the bending loss seriously. Moreover, the mode-coupling strength is evaluated by the propagation constant difference Δβ between the adjacent modes. The Δβ value, which is a function of the core diameter and NA, affects the bending loss. Therefore, based on the calculation of the Δβ, we propose a guideline for the appropriate design of waveguide parameters for GI POF, in order to suppress the bending loss.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. J. Goudeau, G. Widawski, M. Rossbach, B. Bareel, R. Helvenstein and L. Huff, "GI POF for Gb ethernet links", in Proc. 13th Int. Plastic Opt. Fibre Conf., Nurnberg, Germany,Sep. 2004, pp. 76-81.
  2. T. Ishigure, M. Hirai, M. Sato and Y. Koike, "Graded-index plastic optical fiber with high mechanical properties enabling easy network installations", J. Appl. Polym. Sci., vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 404-409, Jan. 2004.
  3. K. Makino, T. Ishigure and Y. Koike, "Analysis of graded index polymer optical fiber link performance under fiber bending", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 2062-2072, Jun. 2005.
  4. D. Gloge, "Bending loss in multimode fibers with graded and ungraded core index", Appl. Opt., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 2506-2512, Nov. 1972.
  5. T. Ishigure, M. Sato, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki and Y. Koike, "Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2095-5100, Nov. 1997.
  6. T. Ishigure, Y. Koike and J. W. Fleming, "Optimum index profile of the perfluorinated polymer based GI polymer optical fiber and its dispersion properties", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 178-184, Feb. 2000.
  7. T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi and Y. Koike, "Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1449-1456, Aug. 2002.
  8. Y. Ohtsuka and Y. Koike, "Determination of the refractive index profile of light-focusing rods: Accuracy of a method using Interphako interference microscopy", Appl. Opt., vol. 19, no. 16, pp. 2866-2872, Aug. 1980.
  9. D. Marcuse, "Coupled mode theory of round optical fiber", Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 817-842, Jun. 1973.
  10. D. G. Cunningham and W. G. Lane, Gigabit Ethernet Networking, Indianapolis, IN: Macmillan, Jun. 1999.
  11. L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham and M. C. Nowell, "An experimental and theoretical study of the offset launch technique for the enhancement of the bandwidth of multimode fiber links", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 324-331, Mar. 1998.
  12. T. Ishigure, M. Kano and Y. Koike, "Which is a more serious factor to the bandwidth of GI POF: Differential mode attenuation or mode coupling?", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 959-965, Jul. 2000.
  13. H. F. Taylor, "Bending effects in optical fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-2, no. 5, pp. 617-628, Oct. 1984.
  14. D. Marcuse, Principles of Optical Fiber Measurements, New York: Academic, 1981.
  15. R. Olashansky and D. B. Keck, "Pulse broadening in graded-index optical fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 483-491, Feb. 1976.

Other (15)

J. Goudeau, G. Widawski, M. Rossbach, B. Bareel, R. Helvenstein and L. Huff, "GI POF for Gb ethernet links", in Proc. 13th Int. Plastic Opt. Fibre Conf., Nurnberg, Germany,Sep. 2004, pp. 76-81.

T. Ishigure, M. Hirai, M. Sato and Y. Koike, "Graded-index plastic optical fiber with high mechanical properties enabling easy network installations", J. Appl. Polym. Sci., vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 404-409, Jan. 2004.

K. Makino, T. Ishigure and Y. Koike, "Analysis of graded index polymer optical fiber link performance under fiber bending", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 2062-2072, Jun. 2005.

D. Gloge, "Bending loss in multimode fibers with graded and ungraded core index", Appl. Opt., vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 2506-2512, Nov. 1972.

T. Ishigure, M. Sato, O. Takanashi, E. Nihei, T. Nyu, S. Yamazaki and Y. Koike, "Formation of the refractive index profile in the graded index polymer optical fiber for gigabit data transmission", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2095-5100, Nov. 1997.

T. Ishigure, Y. Koike and J. W. Fleming, "Optimum index profile of the perfluorinated polymer based GI polymer optical fiber and its dispersion properties", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 178-184, Feb. 2000.

T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi and Y. Koike, "Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1449-1456, Aug. 2002.

Y. Ohtsuka and Y. Koike, "Determination of the refractive index profile of light-focusing rods: Accuracy of a method using Interphako interference microscopy", Appl. Opt., vol. 19, no. 16, pp. 2866-2872, Aug. 1980.

D. Marcuse, "Coupled mode theory of round optical fiber", Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 817-842, Jun. 1973.

D. G. Cunningham and W. G. Lane, Gigabit Ethernet Networking, Indianapolis, IN: Macmillan, Jun. 1999.

L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham and M. C. Nowell, "An experimental and theoretical study of the offset launch technique for the enhancement of the bandwidth of multimode fiber links", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 324-331, Mar. 1998.

T. Ishigure, M. Kano and Y. Koike, "Which is a more serious factor to the bandwidth of GI POF: Differential mode attenuation or mode coupling?", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 959-965, Jul. 2000.

H. F. Taylor, "Bending effects in optical fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-2, no. 5, pp. 617-628, Oct. 1984.

D. Marcuse, Principles of Optical Fiber Measurements, New York: Academic, 1981.

R. Olashansky and D. B. Keck, "Pulse broadening in graded-index optical fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 483-491, Feb. 1976.

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