Abstract

Characteristics of multimode fiber Bragg gratings (MMFBGs) are systematically studied. Dependence of the reflection spectra of MMFBG on excitation conditions, refractive-index change profile, and grating length is investigated experimentally. It is observed that the transmission spectra of the MMFBGs are more sensitive to the polarization state of input light than that of single-mode FBGs (SMFBGs). The influences of the fabrication conditions of MMFBGs (i.e., UV-exposure time) and the rotation of MMF on the output spectra of the MMFBG-based external-cavity semiconductor lasers are then investigated. It is found that the side-mode-suppression ratio and the spatial wavelength-locking region at a specific Bragg wavelength of an MMFBG are dependent on the refractive-index change profile of the grating.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. K. H. Wanser, K. F. Voss and A. D. Kersey, "Novel fiber devices and sensors based on multimode fiber Bragg gratings," in Proc. SPIE, vol. 2360, Glasgow, U.K., 1994, pp. 265-268.
  2. T. Mizunami, T. V. Djambova, T. Niiho and S. Gupta, "Bragg gratings in multimode and few-mode optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 230-235, Feb. 2000.
  3. T. Mizunami, T. Hamada and T. Yamamoto, "External-fiber-grating vertical-cavity-surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1558-1560, Nov. 2000.
  4. H.-G. Yu, C.-Q. Xu, Y. Wang, J. Wokcik, Z.-L. Peng and P. Mascher, "External-cavity semiconductor laser with Bragg grating in multimode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 2341-2343, Oct. 2004.
  5. L. Su, C. Lu, J. Hao, Z. Li and Y. Wang, "Design of wavelength-switching erbium-doped fiber lasers with a multimode fiber Bragg grating using spatial-mode excitation and selection techniques," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 315-317, Feb. 2005.
  6. D. S. Moon, U. C. Paek and Y. J. Chung, "Polarization controlled multi-wavelength Er-doped fiber laser using fiber Bragg grating written in few-mode side-hole fiber with an elliptical core," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 14, pp. 5574-5579, Jul. 2005.
  7. D. S. Moon, U. C. Paek, Y. J. Chung, X. Y. Dong and P. Shum, "Multi-wavelength linear-cavity tunable fiber laser using a chirped fiber Bragg grating and a few-mode fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 15, pp. 5614-5620, Jul. 2005.
  8. H.-G. Yu, Y. Wang, C.-Q. Xu and A. D. Vandermeer, "Oscillation wavelength selection of semiconductor lasers using a multimode fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1660-1665, Mar. 2005.
  9. A. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics, Cambridge: U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998, p. 177.
  10. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1999, p. 132.
  11. A. M. Vengsarkar, Q. Zhong, D. Inniss, W. A. Reed, P. J. Lemaire and S. G. Kosinski, "Birefringence reduction in side-written photoinduced fiber devices by a dual-exposure method," Opt. Lett., vol. 19, no. 16, pp. 1260-1262, Aug. 1994.
  12. K. Dossou, S. LaRochelle and M. Fontaine, "Numerical analysis of the contribution of the transverse asymmetry in the photo-induced index change profile to the birefringence of optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1463-1470, Aug. 2002.
  13. G. C. Papen and G. M. Murphy, "Modal noise in multimode fibers under restricted launch conditions," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 817-822, May 1999.
  14. P. F. Steeger, T. Asakura and A. F. Fercher, "Polarization preservation in circular multimode optical fibers and its measurement by a speckle method," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-2, no. 4, pp. 435-441, Apr. 1984.
  15. L. Yu and B. S. Rawat, "Mode-coupling analysis of depolarization effects in a multimode optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 556-562, May 1992.

Other (15)

K. H. Wanser, K. F. Voss and A. D. Kersey, "Novel fiber devices and sensors based on multimode fiber Bragg gratings," in Proc. SPIE, vol. 2360, Glasgow, U.K., 1994, pp. 265-268.

T. Mizunami, T. V. Djambova, T. Niiho and S. Gupta, "Bragg gratings in multimode and few-mode optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 230-235, Feb. 2000.

T. Mizunami, T. Hamada and T. Yamamoto, "External-fiber-grating vertical-cavity-surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1558-1560, Nov. 2000.

H.-G. Yu, C.-Q. Xu, Y. Wang, J. Wokcik, Z.-L. Peng and P. Mascher, "External-cavity semiconductor laser with Bragg grating in multimode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 2341-2343, Oct. 2004.

L. Su, C. Lu, J. Hao, Z. Li and Y. Wang, "Design of wavelength-switching erbium-doped fiber lasers with a multimode fiber Bragg grating using spatial-mode excitation and selection techniques," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 315-317, Feb. 2005.

D. S. Moon, U. C. Paek and Y. J. Chung, "Polarization controlled multi-wavelength Er-doped fiber laser using fiber Bragg grating written in few-mode side-hole fiber with an elliptical core," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 14, pp. 5574-5579, Jul. 2005.

D. S. Moon, U. C. Paek, Y. J. Chung, X. Y. Dong and P. Shum, "Multi-wavelength linear-cavity tunable fiber laser using a chirped fiber Bragg grating and a few-mode fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 15, pp. 5614-5620, Jul. 2005.

H.-G. Yu, Y. Wang, C.-Q. Xu and A. D. Vandermeer, "Oscillation wavelength selection of semiconductor lasers using a multimode fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1660-1665, Mar. 2005.

A. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics, Cambridge: U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998, p. 177.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1999, p. 132.

A. M. Vengsarkar, Q. Zhong, D. Inniss, W. A. Reed, P. J. Lemaire and S. G. Kosinski, "Birefringence reduction in side-written photoinduced fiber devices by a dual-exposure method," Opt. Lett., vol. 19, no. 16, pp. 1260-1262, Aug. 1994.

K. Dossou, S. LaRochelle and M. Fontaine, "Numerical analysis of the contribution of the transverse asymmetry in the photo-induced index change profile to the birefringence of optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1463-1470, Aug. 2002.

G. C. Papen and G. M. Murphy, "Modal noise in multimode fibers under restricted launch conditions," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 817-822, May 1999.

P. F. Steeger, T. Asakura and A. F. Fercher, "Polarization preservation in circular multimode optical fibers and its measurement by a speckle method," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-2, no. 4, pp. 435-441, Apr. 1984.

L. Yu and B. S. Rawat, "Mode-coupling analysis of depolarization effects in a multimode optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 556-562, May 1992.

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