Abstract

A new type of optical encryption based on super-structured Bragg gratings is proposed. Security is provided by the transformation of the signal to noiselike patterns in the optical domain, which hides any structure to nonauthorized users. Encryption at speeds of several gigabits per second with low bit error rates is simulated.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. C. Elliott, "Quantum cryptography," IEEE Security Privacy, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 57-61, Jul./Aug. 2004.
  2. V. Annovazzi-Lodi and A. Scire, "Synchronization of chaotic injected-laser systems and its application to optical cryptography," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 953-959, Jun. 1996.
  3. P. Torres, L. C. G Valente and M. C. R Carvalho, "Security system for optical communication signals with fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 13-16, Jan. 2002.
  4. S. Etemad, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, J. Young, T. Banwell, S. Galli, J. Jackel, P. Delfyett, C. Price and T. Turpin, "Spectrally efficient optical CDMA using coherent phase-frequency coding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 929-931, Apr. 2005.
  5. P. C. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen and D. Richardson, "A comparative study of the performance of seven and 63 chip optical code-division multiple access encoders based on superstructured fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1352-1364, Sep. 2001.
  6. H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo and K.-I. Kitayama, "Highly spectral-efficient optical code-division multiplexing transmission system," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 250-258, Mar./Apr. 2004.
  7. T. H. Shake, "Security performance of optical CDMA against eavesdropping," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 655-670, Feb. 2005.
  8. T. H. Shake, "Confidentiality performance of spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1652-1663, Apr. 2005.
  9. R. Feced and M. N. Zervas, "Effects of random phase and amplitude error in optical fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 90-101, Jan. 2000.
  10. G. Coppola, A. Irace, A. Cutolo and M. Iodice, "Effect of fabrication errors in channel waveguide Bragg gratings," Appl. Opt., vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1752-1758, Mar. 1999.
  11. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Grating, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1999.
  12. A. Fenner Milton and W. K. Burns, "Mode coupling in optical waveguide horns," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-13, no. 10, pp. 828-835, Oct. 1977.
  13. B. Fisher and O. Shapira, "Localization of light in a random grating array in a single mode fiber," presented at the Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Baltimore, MD, 2001.
  14. M. V. Berry and S. Klein, "Transparent mirrors: Rays waves and localization," Eur. J. Phys., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 222-228, May 1997.
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  16. J. Azaña, "Study of optical pulses-fiber grating interaction by means of joint time-frequency signals representation," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2931-2941, Nov. 2003.
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  21. R. Hui, B. Zhu, K. Demarest, C. Allen and J. Hong, "Generation of ultrahigh-speed tunable-rate optical pulses using strongly gain-coupled dual-wavelength DFB laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 518-520, May 1999.
  22. R. Piyaket, S. Hunter, J. E. Ford and S. Esener, "Programmable ultrashort optical pulse delay using an acousto-optic deflector," Appl. Opt., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1445-1453, Mar. 1995.
  23. J. van Howe and C. Xu, "Ultrafast optical delay line by use of a time-prism pair," Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 99-101, Jan. 2005.
  24. J. M. Castro, D. F. Geraghty, B. West and S. Honkanen, "Fabrication and comprehensive modeling of ion-exchanged Bragg optical add/drop multiplexers," Appl. Opt., vol. 43, no. 33, pp. 6166-6173, Nov. 2004.
  25. J. M. Castro, D. F Geragthy, S. Honkanen, C. Greiner, D. Iazikov and T. W. Mossberg, "Demonstration of mode conversion using anti-symmetric waveguide Bragg gratings," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 4180-4184, Jun. 2005.
  26. J. M. Castro, D. F Geragthy, S. Honkanen, C. Greiner, D. Iazikov and T. W. Mossberg, "Optical add-drop multiplexers based on the anti-symmetric waveguide Bragg grating," Appl. Opt., vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 1236-1243, Feb. 2006.
  27. J. Skaar and R. Feced, "Reconstruction of gratings from noisy reflection data," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 2229-2237, Nov. 2002.

Other (27)

C. Elliott, "Quantum cryptography," IEEE Security Privacy, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 57-61, Jul./Aug. 2004.

V. Annovazzi-Lodi and A. Scire, "Synchronization of chaotic injected-laser systems and its application to optical cryptography," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 953-959, Jun. 1996.

P. Torres, L. C. G Valente and M. C. R Carvalho, "Security system for optical communication signals with fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 13-16, Jan. 2002.

S. Etemad, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, J. Young, T. Banwell, S. Galli, J. Jackel, P. Delfyett, C. Price and T. Turpin, "Spectrally efficient optical CDMA using coherent phase-frequency coding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 929-931, Apr. 2005.

P. C. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen and D. Richardson, "A comparative study of the performance of seven and 63 chip optical code-division multiple access encoders based on superstructured fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1352-1364, Sep. 2001.

H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo and K.-I. Kitayama, "Highly spectral-efficient optical code-division multiplexing transmission system," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 250-258, Mar./Apr. 2004.

T. H. Shake, "Security performance of optical CDMA against eavesdropping," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 655-670, Feb. 2005.

T. H. Shake, "Confidentiality performance of spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1652-1663, Apr. 2005.

R. Feced and M. N. Zervas, "Effects of random phase and amplitude error in optical fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 90-101, Jan. 2000.

G. Coppola, A. Irace, A. Cutolo and M. Iodice, "Effect of fabrication errors in channel waveguide Bragg gratings," Appl. Opt., vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1752-1758, Mar. 1999.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Grating, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1999.

A. Fenner Milton and W. K. Burns, "Mode coupling in optical waveguide horns," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-13, no. 10, pp. 828-835, Oct. 1977.

B. Fisher and O. Shapira, "Localization of light in a random grating array in a single mode fiber," presented at the Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Baltimore, MD, 2001.

M. V. Berry and S. Klein, "Transparent mirrors: Rays waves and localization," Eur. J. Phys., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 222-228, May 1997.

H. Ghafouri-Shiraz and M. Tang, "Interaction between ultrashort optical pulse and fiber gratings with random profile noise," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.-Optoelectron., vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 16-26, Feb. 2004.

J. Azaña, "Study of optical pulses-fiber grating interaction by means of joint time-frequency signals representation," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2931-2941, Nov. 2003.

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001.

M. P. Lotter and L. P. Linde, "A comparison of three families of spreading sequences for CDMA applications," in Proc. IEEE South African Symp. Commun. Signal Process., 1994, pp. 68-75.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 3rd ed. New York: Wiley, 2002.

A. S. Tanenbamum, Computer Networks, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2003.

R. Hui, B. Zhu, K. Demarest, C. Allen and J. Hong, "Generation of ultrahigh-speed tunable-rate optical pulses using strongly gain-coupled dual-wavelength DFB laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 518-520, May 1999.

R. Piyaket, S. Hunter, J. E. Ford and S. Esener, "Programmable ultrashort optical pulse delay using an acousto-optic deflector," Appl. Opt., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 1445-1453, Mar. 1995.

J. van Howe and C. Xu, "Ultrafast optical delay line by use of a time-prism pair," Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 99-101, Jan. 2005.

J. M. Castro, D. F. Geraghty, B. West and S. Honkanen, "Fabrication and comprehensive modeling of ion-exchanged Bragg optical add/drop multiplexers," Appl. Opt., vol. 43, no. 33, pp. 6166-6173, Nov. 2004.

J. M. Castro, D. F Geragthy, S. Honkanen, C. Greiner, D. Iazikov and T. W. Mossberg, "Demonstration of mode conversion using anti-symmetric waveguide Bragg gratings," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 4180-4184, Jun. 2005.

J. M. Castro, D. F Geragthy, S. Honkanen, C. Greiner, D. Iazikov and T. W. Mossberg, "Optical add-drop multiplexers based on the anti-symmetric waveguide Bragg grating," Appl. Opt., vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 1236-1243, Feb. 2006.

J. Skaar and R. Feced, "Reconstruction of gratings from noisy reflection data," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 2229-2237, Nov. 2002.

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