Abstract

We present measurements of the transmission and dispersion properties of coupled-resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) consisting of weakly coupled polymer microring resonators. The fabrication and the measurement methods of the CROWs are discussed as well. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical loss, waveguide dispersion, group delay, group velocity, and group-velocity dispersion (GVD). The intrinsic quality factors of the microrings were about 1.5 × 10<sup>4</sup> to 1.8 × 10<sup>4</sup>, and group delays greater than 100 ps were measured with a GVD between -70 and 100 ps/(nm · resonator). With clear and simple spectral responses and without a need for the tuning of the resonators, the polymer microring CROWs demonstrate the practicability of using a large number of microresonators to control the propagation of optical waves.

© 2006 IEEE

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  27. W. J. Kim, W. Kuang and J. D. O'Brien, "Dispersion characteristics of photonic crystal coupled resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 25, pp. 3431-3437, Dec. 2003.
  28. J. B. Khurgin, "Expanding the bandwidth of slow-light photonic devices based on coupled resonators," Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 513-515, Mar. 2005.
  29. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler and A. J. Stentz, "Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm," Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 25-27, Jan. 2000.
  30. S. Mookherjea and A. Yariv, "Kerr-stabilized super-resonant modes in coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Phys. Rev. E, vol. 66, no. 4, p. 46610, Oct. 2002.
  31. D. N. Christodoulides and N. K. Efremidis, "Discrete temporal solitons along a chain of nonlinear coupled microcavities embedded in photonic crystals," Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 568-570, Apr. 2002.

Other (31)

A. Yariv, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee and A. Scherer, "Coupled-resonator optical waveguide: A proposal and analysis," Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 711-713, Jun. 1999.

N. Stefanou and A. Modinos, "Impurity bands in photonic insulators," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 57, no. 19, pp. 12127-12133, May 1998.

A. Melloni and F. Morichetti, "Linear and nonlinear pulse propagation in coupled resonator slow-wave optical structures," Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 35, no. 4/5, pp. 365-379, Mar. 2003.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen and R. E. Slusher, "Optical delay lines based on optical filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 525-532, Apr. 2001.

S. Lan, S. Nishikawa, H. Ishikawa and O. Wada, "Engineering photonic crystal impurity bands for waveguides, all-optical switches and optical delay lines," IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E85C, no. 1, pp. 181-189, 2002.

H. Altug and J. Vuckovic, "Experimental demonstration of the slow group velocity of light in two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 86, no. 11, p. 111102, Mar. 2005.

J. E. Heebner and R. W. Boyd, "‘Slow’ and ‘fast’ light in resonator-coupled waveguides," J. Mod. Opt., vol. 49, no. 14/15, pp. 2629-2636, 2002.

L. Maleki, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov and V. S. Ilchenko, "Tunable delay line with interacting whispering-gallery-mode resonators," Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 626-628, Mar. 2004.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King and M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 2263-2265, Oct. 2004.

T. D. Happ, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, J. L. Gentner and L. Goldstein, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal coupled-defect laser diode," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 4-6, Jan. 2003.

S. Nishikawa, S. Lan, N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, H. Ishikawa and K. Asakawa, "Optical characterization of photonic crystal delay lines based on one-dimensional coupled defects," Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 23, pp. 2079-2081, Dec. 2002.

J. K. S. Poon, L. Zhu, G. A. DeRose and A. Yariv, "Transmission and group delay in microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Lett., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 456-458, 2006.

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, S. Mookherjea, G. T. Paloczi, Y. Huang and A. Yariv, "Matrix analysis of microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 90-103, Jan. 2004.

J. K. S. Poon, J. Scheuer, Y. Xu and A. Yariv, "Designing coupled-resonator optical waveguide delay lines," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1665-1673, Sep. 2004.

S. Mookherjea, "Dispersion characteristics of coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 18, pp. 2406-2408, Sep. 2005.

Y.-G. Zhao, W.-K. Lu, Y. Ma, S.-S. Kim and S. T. Ho, "Polymer waveguides useful over a very wide wavelength range from the ultraviolet to infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 77, no. 19, pp. 2961-2963, Nov. 2000.

C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach, New York: Wiley, 1999.

A. Stapleton, S. Farrell, H. Akhavan, R. Shafiiha, Z. Peng, S.-J. Choi, J. O'Brien and P. D. Dapkus, "Optical phase characterization of active semiconductor microdisk resonators in transmission," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 88, no. 3, p. 31106, Jan. 2006.

Y. Q. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science, vol. 288, no. 5463, pp. 119-122, Apr. 2000.

S. L. Logunov, "Cavity ringdown detection of losses in thin films in the telecommunication wavelength window," Appl. Opt., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 1570-1573, Mar. 2001.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi and J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filter," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 998-1005, Jun. 1997.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 2327-2335, May 1972.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 807-809, Jul. 2000.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi and I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 87, no. 25, p. 253902, Dec. 2001.

T. Asano, K. Kiyota, D. Kumamoto, B.-S. Song and S. Noda, "Time-domain measurement of picosecond light-pulse propagation in a two-dimensional photonic crystal-slab waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 84, no. 23, pp. 4690-4692, Jun. 2004.

T. J. Karle, Y. J. Chai, C. N. Morgan, I. H. White and T. F. Krauss, "Observation of pulse compression in photonic crystal coupled cavity waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 514-519, Feb. 2004.

W. J. Kim, W. Kuang and J. D. O'Brien, "Dispersion characteristics of photonic crystal coupled resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 25, pp. 3431-3437, Dec. 2003.

J. B. Khurgin, "Expanding the bandwidth of slow-light photonic devices based on coupled resonators," Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 513-515, Mar. 2005.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler and A. J. Stentz, "Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm," Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 25-27, Jan. 2000.

S. Mookherjea and A. Yariv, "Kerr-stabilized super-resonant modes in coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Phys. Rev. E, vol. 66, no. 4, p. 46610, Oct. 2002.

D. N. Christodoulides and N. K. Efremidis, "Discrete temporal solitons along a chain of nonlinear coupled microcavities embedded in photonic crystals," Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 568-570, Apr. 2002.

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