Abstract

A monolithic CMOS compatible process has been developed to realize vertically integrated devices in silicon. The method involves the implantation of an oxygen into a patterned silicon substrate to form buried guiding structures. These buried devices are separated from a surface silicon layer by an intervening layer of silicon dioxide formed through the implantation process. Photolithography and etching is used to define devices on the surface silicon layer. The method has been utilized to realize the vertically coupled microdisk resonators and a variety of microresonator-based integrated optical elements. A new method for extraction of the unloaded Q of a cavity from its measured spectrum is also described.

© 2006 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (Special Issue Silicon-Based Optoelectronics), vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 938-947, Dec. 1998.
  2. K. Jia, W. Wang, Y. Tang, Y. Yang, J. Yang, X. Jiang, Y. Wu, M. Wang and Y. Wang, "Silicon-on-insulator-based optical demultiplexer employing turning-mirror-integrated arrayed-waveguide grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 378-380, Feb. 2005.
  3. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 232-240, Jan. 2005.
  4. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature, vol. 427, no. 6975, pp. 615-618, Feb. 2004.
  5. O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 21, pp. 5269-5273, Oct. 2004.
  6. H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature, vol. 433, no. 7027, pp. 725-728, Feb. 2005.
  7. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature, vol. 435, no. 7040, pp. 325-327, May 2005.
  8. V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos and B. Jalali, "Wavelength conversion in silicon using Raman induced four-wave mixing," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 34-36, Jul. 2004.
  9. Ö. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan and B. Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 17, pp. 4094-4102, Aug. 2004.
  10. M. Borselli, K. Srinivasan, P. Barclay and O. Painter, "Rayleigh scattering, mode coupling and optical loss in silicon microdisks," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, no. 17, pp. 3693-3695, Oct. 2004.
  11. W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, S. Howe, A. Liu and M. Paniccia, "Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, no. 23, pp. 5523-5525, Dec. 2004.
  12. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyysaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1328-1330, May 2004.
  13. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature, vol. 431, no. 7012, pp. 1081-1084, Oct. 2004.
  14. A. R. Cowan, G. W. Rieger and J. F. Young, "Nonlinear transmission of 1.5 µm pulses through single-mode silicon-on-insulator waveguide structures," Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1611-1621, Apr. 2004.
  15. J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. OsgoodJr., S. J. McNab and Y. A. Vlasov, "Spontaneous Raman scattering in a silicon wire waveguide," presented at the Integrated Photonics Research (IPR), San Francisco, CA, Paper IWA4, Jul. 2004.
  16. T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Pulsed-pumped silicon-on-insulator waveguide Raman amplifier," presented at the Int. Conf. Group IV Photonics, Hong Kong, Paper WA4, 2004.
  17. S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, P. D. Dapkus, W. Lin, G. Griffel, R. Menna and J. Connolly, "Microring resonators vertically coupled to buried heterostructure bus waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 828-830, Mar. 2004.
  18. S. M. Garner, S.-S. Lee, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier and L. R. Dalton, "Three-dimensional integrated optics using polymers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1146-1155, Aug. 1999.
  19. P. Koonath, K. Kishima, T. Indukuri and B. Jalali, "Sculpting of three-dimensional nano-optical structures in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, no. 24, pp. 4909-4911, Dec. 2003.
  20. P. Koonath, T. Indukuri and B. Jalali, "Vertically-coupled micro-resonators realized using three-dimensional sculpting in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 1018-1020, Aug. 2004.
  21. P. Koonath, T. Indukuri and B. Jalali, "Add-drop filters utilizing vertically coupled microdisk resonators in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 091102-1-091102-3, Feb. 2005.
  22. T. Indukuri, P. Koonath and B. Jalali, "Subterranean silicon photonics: Demonstration of buried waveguide-coupled micro-resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett.,
  23. M. Chen, X. Wang, J. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Dong, Y. Yu and X. Wang, "Dose-energy match for the formation of high-integrity buried oxide layers in low-dose separation-by-implantation-of-oxygen materials," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 880-882, Feb. 2002.
  24. R. A. Soref, E. Cortesi, F. Namavar and L. Friedman, "Vertically integrated silicon-on-insulator waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 22-24, Jan. 1991.
  25. J. Jiao, B. Johnson, S. Seraphin, M. Anc, R. Dolan and B. Cordts, "Formation of Si islands in the buried oxide layers of ultra-thin SIMOX structures implanted at 65 keV," Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 72, no. 2/3, pp. 150-155, Mar. 2000.
  26. J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson and P. T. Ho, "Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 320-322, Mar. 2000.
  27. Y. Yanagase, S. Suzuki, Y. Kokubun and S. T. Chu, "Box-like filter response and expansion of FSR by a vertically triple coupled microring resonator filter," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1525-1529, Aug. 2002.
  28. A. Siegman, Lasers, Mill Valley, CA: Univ. Science, 1986, ch. 13.

Other (28)

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina and F. Coppinger, "Advances in silicon-on-insulator optoelectronics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (Special Issue Silicon-Based Optoelectronics), vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 938-947, Dec. 1998.

K. Jia, W. Wang, Y. Tang, Y. Yang, J. Yang, X. Jiang, Y. Wu, M. Wang and Y. Wang, "Silicon-on-insulator-based optical demultiplexer employing turning-mirror-integrated arrayed-waveguide grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 378-380, Feb. 2005.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi and H. Morita, "Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 232-240, Jan. 2005.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature, vol. 427, no. 6975, pp. 615-618, Feb. 2004.

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 21, pp. 5269-5273, Oct. 2004.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature, vol. 433, no. 7027, pp. 725-728, Feb. 2005.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature, vol. 435, no. 7040, pp. 325-327, May 2005.

V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos and B. Jalali, "Wavelength conversion in silicon using Raman induced four-wave mixing," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 34-36, Jul. 2004.

Ö. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan and B. Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 17, pp. 4094-4102, Aug. 2004.

M. Borselli, K. Srinivasan, P. Barclay and O. Painter, "Rayleigh scattering, mode coupling and optical loss in silicon microdisks," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, no. 17, pp. 3693-3695, Oct. 2004.

W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, S. Howe, A. Liu and M. Paniccia, "Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, no. 23, pp. 5523-5525, Dec. 2004.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyysaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1328-1330, May 2004.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature, vol. 431, no. 7012, pp. 1081-1084, Oct. 2004.

A. R. Cowan, G. W. Rieger and J. F. Young, "Nonlinear transmission of 1.5 µm pulses through single-mode silicon-on-insulator waveguide structures," Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1611-1621, Apr. 2004.

J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. OsgoodJr., S. J. McNab and Y. A. Vlasov, "Spontaneous Raman scattering in a silicon wire waveguide," presented at the Integrated Photonics Research (IPR), San Francisco, CA, Paper IWA4, Jul. 2004.

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, "Pulsed-pumped silicon-on-insulator waveguide Raman amplifier," presented at the Int. Conf. Group IV Photonics, Hong Kong, Paper WA4, 2004.

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, P. D. Dapkus, W. Lin, G. Griffel, R. Menna and J. Connolly, "Microring resonators vertically coupled to buried heterostructure bus waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 828-830, Mar. 2004.

S. M. Garner, S.-S. Lee, V. Chuyanov, A. Chen, A. Yacoubian, W. H. Steier and L. R. Dalton, "Three-dimensional integrated optics using polymers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1146-1155, Aug. 1999.

P. Koonath, K. Kishima, T. Indukuri and B. Jalali, "Sculpting of three-dimensional nano-optical structures in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, no. 24, pp. 4909-4911, Dec. 2003.

P. Koonath, T. Indukuri and B. Jalali, "Vertically-coupled micro-resonators realized using three-dimensional sculpting in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 1018-1020, Aug. 2004.

P. Koonath, T. Indukuri and B. Jalali, "Add-drop filters utilizing vertically coupled microdisk resonators in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 091102-1-091102-3, Feb. 2005.

T. Indukuri, P. Koonath and B. Jalali, "Subterranean silicon photonics: Demonstration of buried waveguide-coupled micro-resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett.,

M. Chen, X. Wang, J. Chen, X. Liu, Y. Dong, Y. Yu and X. Wang, "Dose-energy match for the formation of high-integrity buried oxide layers in low-dose separation-by-implantation-of-oxygen materials," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 880-882, Feb. 2002.

R. A. Soref, E. Cortesi, F. Namavar and L. Friedman, "Vertically integrated silicon-on-insulator waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 22-24, Jan. 1991.

J. Jiao, B. Johnson, S. Seraphin, M. Anc, R. Dolan and B. Cordts, "Formation of Si islands in the buried oxide layers of ultra-thin SIMOX structures implanted at 65 keV," Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 72, no. 2/3, pp. 150-155, Mar. 2000.

J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson and P. T. Ho, "Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 320-322, Mar. 2000.

Y. Yanagase, S. Suzuki, Y. Kokubun and S. T. Chu, "Box-like filter response and expansion of FSR by a vertically triple coupled microring resonator filter," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1525-1529, Aug. 2002.

A. Siegman, Lasers, Mill Valley, CA: Univ. Science, 1986, ch. 13.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.