Abstract

In this paper, the numerical and the experimental analyses of coated long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) as a high-sensitivity optochemical sensor are presented. The proposed structure relies on LPFGs coated with nanoscale high refractive index chemical-sensitive overlays. The deposition of overlays with refractive index higher than the cladding one leads to a modification of the cladding-mode distribution. If the overlay features are properly chosen, a strong field enhancement within the overlay occurs, leading to an excellent sensitivity of the cladding-mode distribution to the coating properties. The effects of overlay thickness and cladding-mode order on sensor performances have been numerically and experimentally investigated. In order to provide a high-sensitivity and species-specific optochemical sensor, this mechanism has been proved with nanoscale overlays of syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) in the nanoporous crystalline \delta form. The sensitive material has been chosen in light of its selectivity and high sorption properties towards chlorinated and aromatic compounds. Sensor probes were prepared by using dip-coating technique and an adequate procedure to obtain the \delta-form sPS. Experimental demonstration of the sensor capability to perform subparts-per-million detection of chloroform in water at room temperature is also reported.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. J. W. Grate and M. H. Abraham, "Solubility interaction and design of chemically selective sorbent coatings for chemical sensor and arrays," Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 85-111, Feb. 1991.
  2. M. Penza, G. Cassano, P. Aversa, F. Antolini, A. Cusano, M. Consales, M. Giordano and L. Nicolais, "Carbon nanotubes coated multi-transducing sensors for VOCs detection," Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 111/112, pp. 171-180, Nov. 11, 2005.
  3. R. Bernini, S. Camponiano and L. Zeni, "Silicon micromachined hollow optical waveguides for sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 106-110, Jan./Feb. 2002.
  4. G. Boisdè and A. Harmer, Chemical and Biochemical Sensing With Optical Fibers and Waveguides, Boston, MA: Artech House, 1996.
  5. P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, A. Cusano and G. Guerra, "Optical chemo-sensor based on long period gratings coated with \delta form syndiotactic polystyrene," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1713-1715, Aug. 2005.
  6. M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, G. Mensitieri and G. Guerra, "Syndiotactic polystyrene thin film as sensitive layer for an optoelectronic chemical sensing device," Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 177-184, Sep. 2005.
  7. M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, G. Mensitieri and L. Nicolais, "Optical sensor based on ultrathin films of \delta -form syndiotactic polystyrene for fast and high resolution detection of chloroform," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, no. 22, pp. 5349-5351, Nov. 2004.
  8. G. Mensitieri, V. Venditto and G. Guerra, "Polymeric sensing films absorbing organic guests into a nanoporous host crystalline phase," Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. B92, no. 3, pp. 255-261, Jul. 2003.
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  13. S. W James, N. D Rees, G. J Ashwell and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long period gratings with Langmuir Blodgett thin film overlays," Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 686-688, May 2002.
  14. I. Del Villar, M. Achaerandio, I. R. Matias and F. J. Arregui, "Deposition of overlays by electrostatic self-assembly in long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 720-722, Apr. 1, 2005.
  15. I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui and P. Lalanne, "Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 56-69, Jan. 2005.
  16. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo and M. Giordano, "Cladding modes re-organization in high refractive index coated long period gratings: Effects on the refractive index sensitivity," Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 19, pp. 2536-2538, Oct. 2005.
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  20. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory, New York: Chapman and Hall, 1983.
  21. O. Duhem, J.-F. Henninot, M. Warenghem and M. Douay, "Demonstration of long-period grating efficient couplings with an external medium of a refractive index higher than that of silica," Appl. Opt., vol. 37, no. 31, pp. 7223-7228, Nov. 1998.
  22. M. Monerie, "Propagation in doubly clad single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-18, no. 4, pp. 535-542, Apr. 1982.
  23. I. DelVillar, I. R. Matias and F. J. Arregui, "Long-period fiber gratings with overlay of variable refractive index," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1893-1895, Sep. 2005.
  24. G. Guerra, V. M. Vitagliano, C. De Rosa, V. Petraccone and P. Corradini, "Polymorphism in melt crystallized syndiotactic polystyrene samples," Macromolecules, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1539-1544, 1990.
  25. C. De Rosa, G. Guerra, V. Petraccone and B. Pirozzi, "Crystal structure of emptied clathrate form (\deltae form) of syndiotactic polystyrene," Macromolecules, vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 4147-4152, 1997.
  26. G. Guerra, C. Manfredi, P. Musto and S. Tavone, "Guest conformation and diffusion into amorphous and emptied clathrate phases of syndiotactic polystyrene," Macromolecules, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 1329-1334, 1998.
  27. J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion, 2nd ed. Oxford: U.K.: Clarendon, 1975.

Other (27)

J. W. Grate and M. H. Abraham, "Solubility interaction and design of chemically selective sorbent coatings for chemical sensor and arrays," Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 85-111, Feb. 1991.

M. Penza, G. Cassano, P. Aversa, F. Antolini, A. Cusano, M. Consales, M. Giordano and L. Nicolais, "Carbon nanotubes coated multi-transducing sensors for VOCs detection," Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 111/112, pp. 171-180, Nov. 11, 2005.

R. Bernini, S. Camponiano and L. Zeni, "Silicon micromachined hollow optical waveguides for sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 106-110, Jan./Feb. 2002.

G. Boisdè and A. Harmer, Chemical and Biochemical Sensing With Optical Fibers and Waveguides, Boston, MA: Artech House, 1996.

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, A. Cusano and G. Guerra, "Optical chemo-sensor based on long period gratings coated with \delta form syndiotactic polystyrene," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1713-1715, Aug. 2005.

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, G. Mensitieri and G. Guerra, "Syndiotactic polystyrene thin film as sensitive layer for an optoelectronic chemical sensing device," Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 177-184, Sep. 2005.

M. Giordano, M. Russo, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, G. Mensitieri and L. Nicolais, "Optical sensor based on ultrathin films of \delta -form syndiotactic polystyrene for fast and high resolution detection of chloroform," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, no. 22, pp. 5349-5351, Nov. 2004.

G. Mensitieri, V. Venditto and G. Guerra, "Polymeric sensing films absorbing organic guests into a nanoporous host crystalline phase," Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. B92, no. 3, pp. 255-261, Jul. 2003.

V. Bhatia, "Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing," Opt. Express, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 457-466, May 1999.

V. Bhatia, "Properties and sensing applications of long-period gratings," Ph.D. dissertation, Electron. Eng. Dept., Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Nov. 1996.

X. Shu, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 255-266, Feb. 2002.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1606-1612, Sep. 1998.

S. W James, N. D Rees, G. J Ashwell and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long period gratings with Langmuir Blodgett thin film overlays," Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 686-688, May 2002.

I. Del Villar, M. Achaerandio, I. R. Matias and F. J. Arregui, "Deposition of overlays by electrostatic self-assembly in long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 720-722, Apr. 1, 2005.

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui and P. Lalanne, "Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 56-69, Jan. 2005.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo and M. Giordano, "Cladding modes re-organization in high refractive index coated long period gratings: Effects on the refractive index sensitivity," Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 19, pp. 2536-2538, Oct. 2005.

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1277-1294, Aug. 1997.

T. Erdogan, "Cladding mode resonances in short and long period fibre grating filters," J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1760-1773, Aug. 1997.

E. Anemogiannis, E. N. Glytsis and T. K. Gaylord, "Transmission characteristics of long-period fiber gratings having arbitrary azimuthal/radial refractive index variation," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 218-227, Jan. 2003.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory, New York: Chapman and Hall, 1983.

O. Duhem, J.-F. Henninot, M. Warenghem and M. Douay, "Demonstration of long-period grating efficient couplings with an external medium of a refractive index higher than that of silica," Appl. Opt., vol. 37, no. 31, pp. 7223-7228, Nov. 1998.

M. Monerie, "Propagation in doubly clad single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-18, no. 4, pp. 535-542, Apr. 1982.

I. DelVillar, I. R. Matias and F. J. Arregui, "Long-period fiber gratings with overlay of variable refractive index," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1893-1895, Sep. 2005.

G. Guerra, V. M. Vitagliano, C. De Rosa, V. Petraccone and P. Corradini, "Polymorphism in melt crystallized syndiotactic polystyrene samples," Macromolecules, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1539-1544, 1990.

C. De Rosa, G. Guerra, V. Petraccone and B. Pirozzi, "Crystal structure of emptied clathrate form (\deltae form) of syndiotactic polystyrene," Macromolecules, vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 4147-4152, 1997.

G. Guerra, C. Manfredi, P. Musto and S. Tavone, "Guest conformation and diffusion into amorphous and emptied clathrate phases of syndiotactic polystyrene," Macromolecules, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 1329-1334, 1998.

J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion, 2nd ed. Oxford: U.K.: Clarendon, 1975.

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