Abstract

In this paper, the fourfold parametric enhancement over Raman gain of the total optical fiber-amplifier gain is analyzed. Such fiber-amplifier gain may be obtained with a relatively flat profile over a bandwidth in excess of 70 nm by using a microstructure or photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths. Optimal fiber-amplifier gain enhancement occurs whenever the pump wavelength is slightly shorter than the second zero-dispersion wavelength of a microstructure optical fiber.

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  1. K. Blow and D. Wood, "Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2665-2673, Dec. 1989.
  2. S. Trillo and S. Wabnitz, "Parametric and Raman amplification in birefringent fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 1061-1082, Jul. 1992.
  3. F. Vanholsbeeck, P. Emplit and S. Coen, "Complete experimental characterization of the influence of parametric four-wave mixing on stimulated Raman gain," Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 20, pp. 1960-1962, Oct. 2003.
  4. W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultrashort pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibers," Nature, vol. 424, no. 6948, pp. 511-515, Jul. 2003.
  5. M. E. Marhic, N. Kagi, T. K. Chiang and L. G. Kazovsky, "Broadband fiber optical parametric amplifiers," Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 573-575, Apr. 1996.
  6. A. Zhang and M. S. Demokan, "Broadband wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 18, pp. 2375-2377, Sep. 2004.
  7. Y. Wang, W. Zhang, Q. Wang, X. Feng, X. Liu and J. Peng, "Broadband source generated by stimulated Raman scattering and four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear optical fiber ring cavity," Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 842-844, Apr. 2004.
  8. C. J. S. de Matos, J. R. Taylor and K. P. Hansen, "Continuous wave, totally fiber integrated optical parametric oscillator using holey fiber," Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 983-985, May 2004.
  9. F. K. Abdullaev, S. A. Darmanyan, S. Bischoff, P. L. Christiansen and M. P. Sorensen, "Modulational instability in optical fibers near the zero dispersion point," Opt. Commun., vol. 108, no. 1-3, pp. 60-64, May 1994.
  10. M. Yu, C. J. McKinstrie and G. P. Agrawal, "Modulational instabilities in dispersion flattened fibers," Phys. Rev. E, Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Top., vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 1072-1080, Jul. 1995.
  11. J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, S. Coen, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Scalar modulation instability in the normal dispersion regime by use of a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 22, pp. 2225-2227, Nov. 2003.
  12. S. Pitois and G. Millot, "Experimental observation of a new modulational instability spectral window induced by fourth-order dispersion in a normally dispersive single-mode optical fiber," Opt. Commun., vol. 226, no. 1-6, pp. 415-422, Oct. 2003.
  13. A. Y. H. Chen, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Widely tunable optical parametric generation in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 762-764, Apr. 2005.
  14. G. Genty, M. Lehtonen, H. Ludvigsen and M. Kaivola, "Enhanced bandwidth of supercontinuum generated in microstructured fibers," Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 15, pp. 3471-3480, Jul. 2004.
  15. K. M. Hilligsoe, T. V. Andersen, H. N. Paulsen, C. K. Nielsen, K. Molmer, S. Keiding, R. Kristiansen, K. P. Hansen and J. J. Larsen, "Supercontinuum generation in a photonic crystal fiber with two zero dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1045-1054, Mar. 2004.
  16. T. V. Andersen, K. M. Hilligsoe, C. K. Nielsen, J. Thogersen, K. P. Hansen, S. R. Keiding and J. J. Larsen, "Continuous wave wavelength conversion in a photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 17, pp. 4113-4122, Aug. 2004.
  17. T. V. Andersen, K. M. Hilligsoe, C. K. Nielsen, J. Thogersen, K. P. Hansen, S. R. Keiding and J. J. Larsen, "Continuous wave wavelength conversion in a photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 3581-3582, May 2005.
  18. R. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw and I. D. Aggarwal, "Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1146-1155, Jun. 2004.
  19. H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, S. Asimakis, J. Leong, F. Koizumi, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, D. J. Richardson and T. M. Monro, "Heavy metal oxide glass holey fibers with high nonlinearity," presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Anaheim, CA, Paper OThA3, 2005.
  20. J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, S. Asimakis, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, V. Finazzi, X. Feng, J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro and D. J. Richardson, "A lead silicate holey fiber with g = 1860 W-1km-1 at 1550 nm," presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Anaheim, CA, Paper PDP22, 2005.
  21. K. L. Reichenbach and C. Xu, "The effects of randomly occurring nonuniformities on propagation in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 2799-2807, Apr. 2005.

Other (21)

K. Blow and D. Wood, "Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2665-2673, Dec. 1989.

S. Trillo and S. Wabnitz, "Parametric and Raman amplification in birefringent fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 1061-1082, Jul. 1992.

F. Vanholsbeeck, P. Emplit and S. Coen, "Complete experimental characterization of the influence of parametric four-wave mixing on stimulated Raman gain," Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 20, pp. 1960-1962, Oct. 2003.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov and A. J. Taylor, "Transformation and control of ultrashort pulses in dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibers," Nature, vol. 424, no. 6948, pp. 511-515, Jul. 2003.

M. E. Marhic, N. Kagi, T. K. Chiang and L. G. Kazovsky, "Broadband fiber optical parametric amplifiers," Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 573-575, Apr. 1996.

A. Zhang and M. S. Demokan, "Broadband wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 18, pp. 2375-2377, Sep. 2004.

Y. Wang, W. Zhang, Q. Wang, X. Feng, X. Liu and J. Peng, "Broadband source generated by stimulated Raman scattering and four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear optical fiber ring cavity," Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 842-844, Apr. 2004.

C. J. S. de Matos, J. R. Taylor and K. P. Hansen, "Continuous wave, totally fiber integrated optical parametric oscillator using holey fiber," Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 983-985, May 2004.

F. K. Abdullaev, S. A. Darmanyan, S. Bischoff, P. L. Christiansen and M. P. Sorensen, "Modulational instability in optical fibers near the zero dispersion point," Opt. Commun., vol. 108, no. 1-3, pp. 60-64, May 1994.

M. Yu, C. J. McKinstrie and G. P. Agrawal, "Modulational instabilities in dispersion flattened fibers," Phys. Rev. E, Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Top., vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 1072-1080, Jul. 1995.

J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, S. Coen, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Scalar modulation instability in the normal dispersion regime by use of a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 22, pp. 2225-2227, Nov. 2003.

S. Pitois and G. Millot, "Experimental observation of a new modulational instability spectral window induced by fourth-order dispersion in a normally dispersive single-mode optical fiber," Opt. Commun., vol. 226, no. 1-6, pp. 415-422, Oct. 2003.

A. Y. H. Chen, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "Widely tunable optical parametric generation in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 762-764, Apr. 2005.

G. Genty, M. Lehtonen, H. Ludvigsen and M. Kaivola, "Enhanced bandwidth of supercontinuum generated in microstructured fibers," Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 15, pp. 3471-3480, Jul. 2004.

K. M. Hilligsoe, T. V. Andersen, H. N. Paulsen, C. K. Nielsen, K. Molmer, S. Keiding, R. Kristiansen, K. P. Hansen and J. J. Larsen, "Supercontinuum generation in a photonic crystal fiber with two zero dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1045-1054, Mar. 2004.

T. V. Andersen, K. M. Hilligsoe, C. K. Nielsen, J. Thogersen, K. P. Hansen, S. R. Keiding and J. J. Larsen, "Continuous wave wavelength conversion in a photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 17, pp. 4113-4122, Aug. 2004.

T. V. Andersen, K. M. Hilligsoe, C. K. Nielsen, J. Thogersen, K. P. Hansen, S. R. Keiding and J. J. Larsen, "Continuous wave wavelength conversion in a photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 3581-3582, May 2005.

R. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw and I. D. Aggarwal, "Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1146-1155, Jun. 2004.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, V. Finazzi, S. Asimakis, J. Leong, F. Koizumi, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, D. J. Richardson and T. M. Monro, "Heavy metal oxide glass holey fibers with high nonlinearity," presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Anaheim, CA, Paper OThA3, 2005.

J. Y. Y. Leong, P. Petropoulos, S. Asimakis, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, V. Finazzi, X. Feng, J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro and D. J. Richardson, "A lead silicate holey fiber with g = 1860 W-1km-1 at 1550 nm," presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Anaheim, CA, Paper PDP22, 2005.

K. L. Reichenbach and C. Xu, "The effects of randomly occurring nonuniformities on propagation in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 2799-2807, Apr. 2005.

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