Abstract

It will be revealed that a myth of deploying low bit-rate uplink fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) services while providing a high bit-rate downlink is wrong. Therefore, for the future broadband FTTH services, the focus should be on the capability to provide gigabit-or even multigigabits-per-second both in up-and downlinks, namely gigabit symmetric systems. Optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA) now deserves a revisit as a powerful alternative to time-division multiple access and wavelength-division multiple (WDM) access in FTTH systems. In this paper, the authors will first highlight the OCDMA systems. The system architecture and its operation principle, code design, optical en/decoding, using a long superstructured fiber Bragg grating (SSFBG) en/decoder, and its system performance will be described. Next, an OCDMA over WDM passive optical network (PON) as a solution for the gigabit-symmetric FTTH systems will be proposed. The system architecture and the WDM interchannel crosstalk will be studied. It will be shown that by taking advantage of reflection spectrum notches of the SSFBG en/decoder, the WDM interchannel crosstalk can be suppressed and can enable OCDMA over WDM PON to simultaneously provide multigigabit-per-second up-and downlinks to a large number of users.

© 2006 IEEE

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  2. H. Shinohara, "FTTH development in Japan and its enabling technologies," presented at the Broadband Europe 2005, Bordeaux, France,Mo2, Dec. 2005.
  3. T. Fujii, K. Shirakawa, M. Nomura and T. Yamaguchi, "Cinema-class digital content distribution via optical networks (Invited)," in Proc. OpNeTec, Pisa, Italy,Oct. 2004, pp. 11-18.
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  5. K. Kitayama, X. Wang and H. Sotobayshi, "Multi-gigabit symmetric FTTH-OCDMA over WDM PON," in Proc. ONDM, Milano, Italy,Feb. 2005, pp. 273-281.
  6. D. K. Mynbaev, "PON performance improves with multiplexing," WDM Solut., pp. 18-20, Jan. 2003.
  7. C. Delisle and P. Cielo, "Application de la modulation spectrale a la transmission de I'information (in French)," Can. J. Phys., vol. 53, pp. 1047-1053, 1975.
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  27. H. Tsuda, H. Takenouchi, T. Ishii, K. Okamoto, T. Gosh and C. Amano, "Photonic spectral encoder/decoder using an AWG for coherent optical code division multiplexing," in Proc. OFC, San Diego, CA, 1999, pp. PD32/1-PD32/3.
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  29. M. R. Mokhtar, M. Ibsen, P. C. Teh and D. J. Richardson, "Reconfigurable multi-level phase shift keying encoder-decoder for all-optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 431-433, Mar. 2003.
  30. P. Ebrahimi, M. Kargar, M. Hamer, A. E. Willner, K. Yu and O. Solgaard, "A 10-µs -tuning MEMS-actuated Gires-Tournois filter for use as a tunable wavelength demultiplexer and a tunable OCDMA encoder/decoder," presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Paper ThQ2, Feb. 2004.

Other (30)

P. Green, "Paving the last mile with glass," IEEE Spectrum, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 13-14, Dec. 2002.

H. Shinohara, "FTTH development in Japan and its enabling technologies," presented at the Broadband Europe 2005, Bordeaux, France,Mo2, Dec. 2005.

T. Fujii, K. Shirakawa, M. Nomura and T. Yamaguchi, "Cinema-class digital content distribution via optical networks (Invited)," in Proc. OpNeTec, Pisa, Italy,Oct. 2004, pp. 11-18.

K. Kitayama, X. Wang and H. Sotobayashi, "State of the art and applications of optical code division multiple access (Invited)," presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden,Paper Tu4.6.1, Sep. 2004.

K. Kitayama, X. Wang and H. Sotobayshi, "Multi-gigabit symmetric FTTH-OCDMA over WDM PON," in Proc. ONDM, Milano, Italy,Feb. 2005, pp. 273-281.

D. K. Mynbaev, "PON performance improves with multiplexing," WDM Solut., pp. 18-20, Jan. 2003.

C. Delisle and P. Cielo, "Application de la modulation spectrale a la transmission de I'information (in French)," Can. J. Phys., vol. 53, pp. 1047-1053, 1975.

P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro and T. R. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-4, no. 5, pp. 547-554, May 1986.

J. H. Lee, P. C. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen and D. J. Richardson, "A grating-based OCDMA coding-decoding system incorporating a nonlinear optical loop mirror for improved code recognition and noise reduction," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 36-46, Jan. 2002.

X. Wang, K. Matsushima, A. Nishiki, N. Wada, F. Kubota and K.-I. Kitayama, "Experimental demonstration of 511-chip 640 Gchip/s superstructured FBG for high performance optical code processing," presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden,Paper Tu1.3.7, Sep. 2004.

Z. Jiang, D. S. Seo, S.-D. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer and A. M. Weiner, "Four-user, 2.5-Gb/s, spectrally coded OCDMA system demonstration using low-power nonlinear processing," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 143-158, Jan. 2005.

R. P. Scott, W. Cong, K. Li, V. J. Hernandez, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage and S. J. B. Yoo, "Demonstration of an error-free 4 × 10 Gb/s multiuser SPECTS O-CDMA network testbed," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 2186-2188, Sep. 2004.

V. Baby, I. Glesk, R. J. Runser, R. Fischer, Y.-K. Huang, C.-S. Bres, W. C. Kwong, T. H. Curtis and P. R. Prucnal, "Experimental demonstration and scalability analysis of a four-node 102-Gchip/s fast frequency-hopping time-spreading optical CDMA network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 253-255, Jan. 2005.

X. Wang, N. Wada, T. Hamanaka, K. Kitayama and A. Nishiki, "10-user, truly-asynchronous OCDMA experiment with 511-chip SSFBG en/decoder and SC-based optical thresholder," presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) Conf., Anaheim, CA, Postdeadline Paper, PDP33, Mar. 2005.

A. Stok and E. H. Sargent, "The role of optical CDMA in access networks," IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 83-87, Sep. 2002.

K. Kitayama, H. Sotobayashi and N. Wada, "Optical code division multiplexing (OCDM) and its applications to photonic networks," IEICE Trans. Fundam. Electron. Commun. Comput. Sci., vol. E82-A, no. 12, pp. 2616-2626, Dec. 1999.

X. Wang and K. Kitayama, "Analysis of beat noise in coherent and incoherent time-spreading OCDMA network," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 2226-2235, Oct. 2004.

K. S. Gilhousen, I. M. Jacobs, R. Padovani, A. J. Viterbi, L. A. Weaver and C. E. Wheatley, "On the capacity of a cellular CDMA system," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 303-312, May 1991.

H. Kurita, H. Y. Hashimoto and H. Yokoyama, "All-optical signal processing at over 100 Gb/s with nonlinear effects in semiconductor lasers," in Proc. CPT, Sendai, Japan, 1999, pp. 217-218.

H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo and K. Kitayama, "Highly spectral efficient optical code division multiplexing transmission system," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 250-258, Mar./Apr. 2004.

H. P. Sardesai and A. M. Weiner, "Nonlinear fiber-optic receiver for ultrashort pulse code division multiple access communication," Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 610-611, Mar. 1997.

J. H. Lee, P. C. Teh, Z. Yusoff, M. Ibsen, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro and D. J. Richardson, "A holey fiber-based nonlinear thresholding device for optical CDMA receiver performance enhancement," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 876-878, Jun. 2002.

K. Li, W. Cong, V. J. Hernandez, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, Y. Du, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner and S. J. B. Yoo, "10 Gb/s optical CDMA encoder-decoder BER performance using HNLF thresholder," presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Paper MF87, Feb. 2004.

X. Wang, T. Hamanaka, N. Wada and K. Kitayama, "Optical thresholder based on SC generation in DFF for multiple-access-interference suppression in OCDMA system," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 14, pp. 5499-5505, 2005.

E. H. Dinan and B. Jabbari, "Spreading codes for direct sequence CDMA and wideband CDMA cellular networks," IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 48-54, Sep. 1998.

X. Wang, K. Matsushima, A. Nishiki, N. Wada and K. Kitayama, "High reflectivity superstructured FBG for coherent optical code generation and recognition," Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 22, pp. 5457-5468, Nov. 2004.

H. Tsuda, H. Takenouchi, T. Ishii, K. Okamoto, T. Gosh and C. Amano, "Photonic spectral encoder/decoder using an AWG for coherent optical code division multiplexing," in Proc. OFC, San Diego, CA, 1999, pp. PD32/1-PD32/3.

H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch and S. LaRochelle, "Passive optical fast frequency-hop CDMA communications system," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 397-405, Mar. 1999.

M. R. Mokhtar, M. Ibsen, P. C. Teh and D. J. Richardson, "Reconfigurable multi-level phase shift keying encoder-decoder for all-optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 431-433, Mar. 2003.

P. Ebrahimi, M. Kargar, M. Hamer, A. E. Willner, K. Yu and O. Solgaard, "A 10-µs -tuning MEMS-actuated Gires-Tournois filter for use as a tunable wavelength demultiplexer and a tunable OCDMA encoder/decoder," presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, Paper ThQ2, Feb. 2004.

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