Abstract

Analytical formulas for the power spectra of return-to-zero (RZ) optical signals generated by Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulators are derived. Pulse duty cycles of 33%, 50%, and 67%, in conjunction with several modulation techniques, including binary ON-OFF keying (OOK), duobinary OOK, and M-ary differential phase-shift keying (DPSK), phase-shift keying (PSK), and quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM), are considered. Spectral characteristics and bandwidth requirements of these different schemes are compared.

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  1. A. Sahara, T. Inui, T. Komukai, H. Kubota and M. Nakazawa, "40-Gb/s RZ transmission over a transoceanic distance in a dispersion managed standard fiber using a modified inline synchronous method," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1364-1373, Oct. 2000.
  2. M. I. Hayee and A. E. Willner, "NRZ versus RZ in 10-40-Gb/s dispersion-managed WDM transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 991-993, Aug. 1999.
  3. C. Caspar, H. M. Foisel, A. Gladisch, N. Hanik, F. Küppers, R. Ludwig, A. Mattheus, W. Pieper, B. Strebel and H. G. Weber, "RZ versus NRZ modulation format for dispersion compensated SMF-based 10 Gb/s transmission with more than 100-km amplifier spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 991-993, Apr. 1999.
  4. D. Breuer and K. Petermann, "Comparison of NRZ-and RZ-modulation format for 40-Gb/s TDM standard-fiber systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 398-400, Mar. 1997.
  5. H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "A comparison between NRZ and RZ data formats with respect to PMD-induced system degradation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 448-450, May 2001.
  6. T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, J. Abe, K. Kinjo, K. Motoshima and K. Kasahara, "A comparative study of DPSK and OOK WDM transmission over transoceanic distances and their performance degradations due to nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1933-1943, Sep. 2003.
  7. C. Xu, X. Liu, L. Mollenauer and X. Wei, "Comparison of return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying and ON-OFF keying in long-haul dispersion managed transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 617-619, Apr. 2003.
  8. A. Hodizic, B. Konrad and K. Petermann, "Alternative modulation formats in N × 40 Gb/s WDM standard fiber RZ-transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 598-607, Apr. 2002.
  9. Y. Kisaka, M. Tomizawa, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara and Y. Miyamoto, "Compact-spectrum RZ signal generated by single-stage push-pull type Mach-Zehnder modulator for DWDM transmission," Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 304-306, Feb. 2003.
  10. J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.
  11. K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, "Spectrum of externally modulated optical signals," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 658-663, Feb. 2004.
  12. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions, New York: Wiley, 1993.
  13. K. Yonenaga, S. Kuwano, S. Norimatsu and N. Shibata, "Optical duobinary transmission system with no receiver sensitivity degradation," Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 302-304, Feb. 1995.
  14. T. Ono, Y. Yano and K. Fukuchi, "Demonstration of high-dispersion tolerance of 20-Gb/s optical duobinary signal generated by a low-pass filtering method," in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Dallas, TX, 1997,Paper ThH1,. pp. 268-269.
  15. D. Lee, M. Lee, Y. Wen and A. Nirmalathas, "A simple configuration to generate 40 Gbit/s duobinary CSRZ and CSRZ-DPSK signals with enlarged dispersion tolerance," in Proc. 16th Annu. Meeting IEEE LEOS, vol. 1, Tucson, AZ, Oct. 2003, pp. 26-30.

Other (15)

A. Sahara, T. Inui, T. Komukai, H. Kubota and M. Nakazawa, "40-Gb/s RZ transmission over a transoceanic distance in a dispersion managed standard fiber using a modified inline synchronous method," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1364-1373, Oct. 2000.

M. I. Hayee and A. E. Willner, "NRZ versus RZ in 10-40-Gb/s dispersion-managed WDM transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 991-993, Aug. 1999.

C. Caspar, H. M. Foisel, A. Gladisch, N. Hanik, F. Küppers, R. Ludwig, A. Mattheus, W. Pieper, B. Strebel and H. G. Weber, "RZ versus NRZ modulation format for dispersion compensated SMF-based 10 Gb/s transmission with more than 100-km amplifier spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 991-993, Apr. 1999.

D. Breuer and K. Petermann, "Comparison of NRZ-and RZ-modulation format for 40-Gb/s TDM standard-fiber systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 398-400, Mar. 1997.

H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson and P. A. Andrekson, "A comparison between NRZ and RZ data formats with respect to PMD-induced system degradation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 448-450, May 2001.

T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, J. Abe, K. Kinjo, K. Motoshima and K. Kasahara, "A comparative study of DPSK and OOK WDM transmission over transoceanic distances and their performance degradations due to nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1933-1943, Sep. 2003.

C. Xu, X. Liu, L. Mollenauer and X. Wei, "Comparison of return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying and ON-OFF keying in long-haul dispersion managed transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 617-619, Apr. 2003.

A. Hodizic, B. Konrad and K. Petermann, "Alternative modulation formats in N × 40 Gb/s WDM standard fiber RZ-transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 598-607, Apr. 2002.

Y. Kisaka, M. Tomizawa, A. Hirano, S. Kuwahara and Y. Miyamoto, "Compact-spectrum RZ signal generated by single-stage push-pull type Mach-Zehnder modulator for DWDM transmission," Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 304-306, Feb. 2003.

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.

K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, "Spectrum of externally modulated optical signals," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 658-663, Feb. 2004.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions, New York: Wiley, 1993.

K. Yonenaga, S. Kuwano, S. Norimatsu and N. Shibata, "Optical duobinary transmission system with no receiver sensitivity degradation," Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 302-304, Feb. 1995.

T. Ono, Y. Yano and K. Fukuchi, "Demonstration of high-dispersion tolerance of 20-Gb/s optical duobinary signal generated by a low-pass filtering method," in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Dallas, TX, 1997,Paper ThH1,. pp. 268-269.

D. Lee, M. Lee, Y. Wen and A. Nirmalathas, "A simple configuration to generate 40 Gbit/s duobinary CSRZ and CSRZ-DPSK signals with enlarged dispersion tolerance," in Proc. 16th Annu. Meeting IEEE LEOS, vol. 1, Tucson, AZ, Oct. 2003, pp. 26-30.

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