Abstract

The authors propose a new wavelength-dispersive principle based on waveguide group-index modification and apply this principle in a new type of arrayed waveguide dispersive element based on modified group index. The element is composed by an array of waveguides consisting of two sections with different group indexes. We deduce the applicable dispersion formula and demonstrate that the group-index modification can be used for controlling or enhancing device wavelength dispersion. Two device examples are provided. First, dispersive properties of a waveguide array with silicon on insulator (SOI) straight waveguides with group index modified by waveguide widening are calculated. Then, the authors show that by placing the element with modified group index in a phased array of a conventional arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) device, the dispersive properties of the AWG are markedly enhanced. Dispersion-enhancement factor of up to 60 is calculated for a compact demultiplexer designed for SOI platform with group index modified by photonic-bandgap effect.

© 2006 IEEE

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  17. Y. Kawakita, T. Saitoh, S. Shimotaya and K. Shimomura, "A novel straight waveguide grating with linearly varying refractive-index distribution," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 144-146, Jan. 2004.
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  21. P. Cheben, A. Bogdanov, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. J. Picard, E. Post and D.-X. Xu, "A 100-channel near-infrared SOI waveguide microspectrometer: Design and fabrication challenges," in Proc. SPIE, vol. 5644, Beijing, China, 2005, pp. 103-110.
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  23. D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard and W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 20, pp. 2384-2386, Oct. 2004.
  24. P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge and D. Dalacu, "Birefringence compensation in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer," in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4997, San Jose, CA, 2003, pp. 181-189.
  25. M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi and I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slab," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 87, no. 25, pp. 253902-1-253902-4, Dec. 2001.

Other (25)

J. Y. Wei, "Advances in the management and control of optical internet," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 768-785, May 2002.

J. Zhang and B. Mukherjee, "A review of fault management in WDM mesh networks: Basic concepts and research challenges," IEEE Network, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 41-48, Mar./Apr. 2004.

M. K. Smit and C. van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM devices: Principles, design and application," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 236-250, Jun. 1996.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson and D.-X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 503-505, Feb. 2004.

J.-J. He, B. Lamontgne, A. Delage, L. Erickson, M. Davies and E. S. Koteles, "Monolitic integrated wavelength demultiplexer based on a waveguide Rowland circle grating in InGaAsP/InP," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 631-638, Apr. 1998.

V. I. Tolstikhin, A. Densmore, K. Pimenov, Y. Logvin, S. Laframboise and S. Grabtchak, "Monolithically integrated optical channel monitor for DWDM transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 146-153, Jan. 2004.

S. Janz, M. Pearson, B. Lamontagne, L. Erickson, A. Delâge, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, M. Gao, A. Balakrishnan, J. Miller and S. Charbonneau, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings: An embeddable diffractive elements for photonics integrated circuits," in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., OSA Tech. Dig., vol. 70, Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. 69-70.

R. R. Whiteman, A. P. Knights, D. George, I. E. Day, A. Vonsovici, A. A. House, G. F. Hopper and M. Asghari, "Recent progress in the design, simulation and fabrication of small cross-section silicon-on-insulator VOAs," in Proc. SPIE, Photonocs West, vol. 4997, San Jose, CA, 2003, pp. 146-156.

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics, New York: Springer-Verlag, 2004.

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics-An Introduction, Chichester: U.K.: Wiley, 2004.

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz and A. Delâge, "Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform," in Proc. SPIE, vol. 5117, Maspalomas, Spain, 2003, pp. 147-156.

V. R. Almeida and M. Lipson, "Optical bistability on a silicon chip," Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 20, pp. 2387-2389, Oct. 2004.

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator," in Proc. SPIE, vol. 3953, San Jose, CA, 2000, pp. 11-18.

S. Janz, "Silicon-based waveguide technology for wavelength division multiplexing," in Silicon Photonics, New York: Springer-Verlag, 2004, ch. 10.

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno and T. Baba, "Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, no. 5B, pp. L673-L675, May 2004.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno and A. Motegi, "Arrayed waveguide grating of 70 × 60 µm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides," Electron. Lett., vol. 41, no. 14, pp. 801-802, Jul. 2005.

Y. Kawakita, T. Saitoh, S. Shimotaya and K. Shimomura, "A novel straight waveguide grating with linearly varying refractive-index distribution," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 144-146, Jan. 2004.

P. Cheben, I. Powell, S. Janz and D.-X. Xu, "Wavelength-dispersive device based on a Fourier-transform Michelson-type arrayed waveguide grating," Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1824-1826, Jul. 2005.

H. A. Rowland, "Preliminary notice of the results accomplished in the manufacture and theory of gratings for optical purposes," Phil. Mag., vol. 13, pp. 469-474, 1882.

H. A. Rowland, The Physical Papers of Henri August Rowland, Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1902, pp. 487-491.

P. Cheben, A. Bogdanov, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. J. Picard, E. Post and D.-X. Xu, "A 100-channel near-infrared SOI waveguide microspectrometer: Design and fabrication challenges," in Proc. SPIE, vol. 5644, Beijing, China, 2005, pp. 103-110.

R. Adar, C. H. Henry, C. Dragone, R. C. Kistler and M. A. Mildbrodt, "Broad-band array multiplexers made with silica waveguides on silicon," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 212-219, Feb. 1993.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard and W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 20, pp. 2384-2386, Oct. 2004.

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge and D. Dalacu, "Birefringence compensation in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer," in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4997, San Jose, CA, 2003, pp. 181-189.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi and I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slab," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 87, no. 25, pp. 253902-1-253902-4, Dec. 2001.

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