Abstract

A simple, compact, and low-cost optical fiber refractive-index (RI) sensor is reported. It consists of a multimode fiber in which a short section of standard single-mode fiber (SMF) is inserted. Owing to the core diameter mismatch, the cladding of the SMF guides light. This makes the device sensitive to the external RI. The maximum resolution of the sensor is about 7× 10<sup>-5</sup>. The fabrication of the sensor only requires cleaving and fusion splicing; moreover, the device can operate at different wavelengths, which makes it attractive for diverse applications.

© 2006 IEEE

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  2. J. Zubia, G. Garitaonaindia and J. Arrue, "Passive device based on plastic optical fibers to determine the indices of refraction of liquids," Appl. Opt., vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 941-946, Feb. 2000.
  3. J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández and D. Talavera, "High resolution refractive index sensing with cladded multimode tapered optical fibre," Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 106-107, Jan. 2004.
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  6. D. Monzón-Hernández, J. Villatoro and D. Luna-Moreno, "Miniature optical fiber refractometer using cladded multimode tapered fiber tips," Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 36-40, Sep. 2005.
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  9. X. Shu, B. A. L. Gwandu, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Sampled fibre Bragg grating for simultaneous refractive-index and temperature measurement," Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 774-776, Jun. 2001.
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  12. A. Iadiccico, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordono and A. Cusano, "Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1495-1497, Jul. 2005.
  13. H. Lee, Y. Liu, S. B. Lee, S. S. Choi and J. N. Jang, "Displacements of the resonant peaks of a long-period fiber grating induced by a change of ambient refractive index," Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 1769-1771, Dec. 1997.
  14. H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1606-1612, Sep. 1998.
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  17. X. Shu, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 255-266, Feb. 1999.
  18. Z. Wang and S. Ramachandran, "Ultrasensitive long-period fiber gratings for broadband modulators and sensors," Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 24, pp. 2458-2460, Dec. 2003.
  19. T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion and R. Neal, "A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 1702-1705, Apr. 2002.
  20. P. L. Swart, "Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor," Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1576-1580, Aug. 2004.
  21. W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 86, no. 15, p. 151 122, Apr. 2005.
  22. J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan and S. He, "Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1247-1249, Jun. 2005.
  23. V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, S. Calixto, A. B. Sotsky and L. I. Sotskaya, "Holey fiber tapers with resonance transmission for high-resolution refractive index sensing," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 19, pp. 7609-7614, Sep. 2005.
  24. M. Iga, A. Seki and K. Watanabe, "Gold thickness dependence of SPR-based hetero-core structured optical fiber sensor," Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 363-368, Apr. 2005.
  25. D. Monzón-Hernández and J. Villatoro, "High-resolution refractive index sensing by means of a multiple-peak surface plasmon resonance optical fiber sensor," Sens. Actuators B, Chem.,

Other (25)

T. Takeo and H. Hattori, "Optical fiber sensor for measuring refractive index," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1509-1512, Oct. 1982.

J. Zubia, G. Garitaonaindia and J. Arrue, "Passive device based on plastic optical fibers to determine the indices of refraction of liquids," Appl. Opt., vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 941-946, Feb. 2000.

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández and D. Talavera, "High resolution refractive index sensing with cladded multimode tapered optical fibre," Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 106-107, Jan. 2004.

I. Noiseux, W. Long, A. Cournoyer and M. Vernon, "Simple fiber-optic-based sensors for process monitoring: An application in wine quality control monitoring," Appl. Spectrosc., vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 1010-1019, Aug. 2004.

P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, N. Peyghambarian and M. Mansuripur, "Evanescent field-based optical fiber sensing device for measuring the refractive index of liquids in microfluidic channels," Opt. Lett., vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 1273-1275, Jun. 2005.

D. Monzón-Hernández, J. Villatoro and D. Luna-Moreno, "Miniature optical fiber refractometer using cladded multimode tapered fiber tips," Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 36-40, Sep. 2005.

A. M. Cardenas-Valencia, R. H. Byrne and E. T. Steimle, "Development of stripped-cladding optical fiber sensors for continuous monitoring-I. Theoretical study of a referencing method for measuring refractive indices of fluids," Sens. Actuators B, Chem.,

A. S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe and G. Edwall, "Fiber optical Bragg grating refractometer," Fiber Integr. Opt., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 51-62, Jan. 1998.

X. Shu, B. A. L. Gwandu, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Sampled fibre Bragg grating for simultaneous refractive-index and temperature measurement," Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 774-776, Jun. 2001.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch and A. Andreev, "A fibre Bragg grating refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 757-764, Jul. 2001.

G. Laggont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 765-770, Jul. 2001.

A. Iadiccico, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordono and A. Cusano, "Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1495-1497, Jul. 2005.

H. Lee, Y. Liu, S. B. Lee, S. S. Choi and J. N. Jang, "Displacements of the resonant peaks of a long-period fiber grating induced by a change of ambient refractive index," Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 1769-1771, Dec. 1997.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1606-1612, Sep. 1998.

V. Bhatia, "Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing," Opt. Express, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 457-466, May 1999.

D. B. Stegall and T. Erdogan, "Leaky cladding mode propagation in long-period fiber grating devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 343-345, Mar. 1999.

X. Shu, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 255-266, Feb. 1999.

Z. Wang and S. Ramachandran, "Ultrasensitive long-period fiber gratings for broadband modulators and sensors," Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 24, pp. 2458-2460, Dec. 2003.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion and R. Neal, "A high sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 1702-1705, Apr. 2002.

P. L. Swart, "Long-period grating Michelson refractometric sensor," Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1576-1580, Aug. 2004.

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee and A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 86, no. 15, p. 151 122, Apr. 2005.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan and S. He, "Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1247-1249, Jun. 2005.

V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, S. Calixto, A. B. Sotsky and L. I. Sotskaya, "Holey fiber tapers with resonance transmission for high-resolution refractive index sensing," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 19, pp. 7609-7614, Sep. 2005.

M. Iga, A. Seki and K. Watanabe, "Gold thickness dependence of SPR-based hetero-core structured optical fiber sensor," Sens. Actuators B, Chem., vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 363-368, Apr. 2005.

D. Monzón-Hernández and J. Villatoro, "High-resolution refractive index sensing by means of a multiple-peak surface plasmon resonance optical fiber sensor," Sens. Actuators B, Chem.,

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