Abstract

On one hand, the stability of fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) written either in ultraviolet (UV) hypersensitized, OH flooded, H2 loaded or in pristine fibers has been investigated through isochronal annealing experiments. The stability of the modulation proved to be higher in the hypersensitized and OH-flooded fibers. In contrast the annealing-induced shift in the Bragg wavelength (λ<sub>B</sub>) was lower in the H2-loaded and pristine counterparts. On the other hand, germanosilicate preform plates have been sensitized and then exposed in similar conditions to those used for writing the gratings. Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy has been carried out with a view of monitoring the formation (or bleaching) of defect-associated bands. These observations are discussed within the framework of a defect model.

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  2. H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard and M. D. Gallagher, "Annealing of Bragg gratings in hydrogen loaded optical fiber," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 2940-2945, Sep. 1995.
  3. S. Kannan, J. Z. Y. Gus and P. J. Lemaire, "Thermal stability analysis of UV-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1478-1483, Aug. 1997.
  4. T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 73-80, Jul. 1994.
  5. S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker and D. Goodchild, "Thermal decay of fiber Bragg gratings written in boron and germanium co-doped silica fiber," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1470-1477, Aug. 1997.
  6. J. Canning and A. Canagasabey, "Hypersensitization of optical waveguides: Towards industrial applications," J. Microw. Optoelectron., vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 113-126, 2004.
  7. M. Äslund, J. Canning and G. Yoffe, "Locking in photosensitivity in optical fibres and waveguides," Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 24, pp. 1826-1828, Dec. 1999.
  8. G. E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley and C. R. Pollock, "Photosensitization of optical fiber by UV exposure of hydrogen loaded fiber," in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), San Diego, CA, 1999, pp. PD20/1-PD20/3.
  9. B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao and X. Y. Dong, "Highly stable fiber Bragg gratings written in hydrogen-loaded fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1349-1351, Oct. 2000.
  10. J. Canning, "Photosensitization and photostabilization of laser induced index changes in optical fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 275-289, Jul. 2000.
  11. A. Canagasabey, J. Canning and N. Groothoff, "355 nm hypersensitization of optical fibres," Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 13, pp. 1108-1110, 2003.
  12. A. Canagasabey and J. Canning, "UV lamp hypersensitization of hydrogen loaded optical fibres," Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 1585-1589, 2003.
  13. M. Lancry, P. Niay and M. Douay, "Comparing the properties of various sensitization methods in H2 -loaded, UV hypersensitized or OH-flooded standard germanosilicate fibers," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 4037-4043, May 2005.
  14. M. Äslund and J. Canning, "Annealing properties of gratings written into UV pre-sensitized hydrogen out-diffused optical fiber," Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 692-694, May 2000.
  15. J. Canning, M. Englund and K. Sommer, "Fiber gratings for high temperature sensor applications," Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 824-828, 2001.
  16. K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman and R. Tam, "Photosensitization of standard fibers with deep UV laser radiation," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1958-1968, Sep. 2003.
  17. M. Fokine and W. Margulis, "Large increase in photosensitivity through massive hydroxyl formation," Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 302-304, 2000.
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  22. M. Lancry, P. Niay, M. Douay, P. Cordier, C. Depecker and B. Poumellec, "VUV and IR absorption spectra induced in H2 -loaded and UV hyper-sensitized standard germanosilicate preform plates through exposure to ArF laser light," J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 351, no. 52-54, pp. 3773-3783, Dec. 2005.
  23. A. Hidayat, Q. Wang, P. Niay, M. Douay, B. Poumellec, F. Kherbouche and I. Riant, "Temperature-induced reversible changes in fiber Bragg grating spectral characteristics," Appl. Opt., vol. 40, no. 16, pp. 2632-2642, 2001.
  24. G. Meltz and W. W. Morey, "Bragg grating formation and germanosilicate fiber photosensitivity," in Proc. SPIE, Int. Workshop Photoinduced Self-Organization Effects Optical Fiber, vol. 1516, Quebec City, QC, Canada, 1991, pp. 185-199.
  25. D. Ramecourt, P. Niay, P. Bernage, I. Riant and M. Douay, "Growth of strength of Bragg gratings written in H2 -loaded telecommunications fibre during CW UV post-exposure," Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 329-331, Feb. 1999.
  26. D. Ramecourt, "Étude de la photosensibilité et de la stabilité de réseaux d'indice inscrits dans des fibres optiques germanosilicates hydrogénées," Ph.D. dissertation, Physics Departement, Univ. Lille, Lille, France, 2001.
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  28. Q. Zeng, J. F. Stebbins, A. D. Heaney and T. Erdogan, "Hydrogen speciation in hydrogen-loaded, germania-doped silica glass: A combined NMR and FTIR study of the effects of UV irradiations and heat treatment," J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 258, no. 1-3, pp. 78-91, Nov. 1999.
  29. C. Dalle, P. Cordier, C. Depecker, P. Niay, P. Bernage and M. Douay, "Growth kinetics and thermal annealing of UV-induced H-bearing species in hydrogen loaded germanosilicate fibre preforms," J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 260, no. 1/2, pp. 83-98, Dec. 1999.
  30. V. Grubsky, "Photosensitivity of germanium doped silica glass and fibers and its applications," Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Physics and Astronomy, Univ. Southern California, Los Angeles, 1999.
  31. M. Lancry, "Contribution à l'étude de méthodes de sensibilisation de fibres optiques de communication et mécanismes associés," Ph.D. dissertation, Physics Departement, Univ. Lille, Lille, France, 2004.
  32. M. Lancry, P. Niay, M. Douay, P. Cordier and C. Depecker, "VUV and IR absorption spectra in OH-flooded standard germanosilicate preform plates," presented at the Proc. OSA Tech. Dig. Bragg Gratings Photosensitivity and Poling Glass Waveguides (BGPP) Conf., Sydney, Australia,Paper 3, Session B05, 2005.
  33. B. Leconte, "Contribution à l'étude de la photosensibilité des fibres en silice sous l'effet d'une insolation par un laser à ArF," Ph.D. dissertation, Physics Departement, Univ. Lille, Lille, France, 1998.
  34. M. Fujimaki, T. Kasahara, S. Shimoto, N. Miyazaki, S. Tokuhiro, K. S. Seol and Y. Ohki, "Structural changes induced by KrF excimer laser photons in hydrogen-loaded Ge-doped silica glass," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 4682-4687, 1999.
  35. R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi and T. Erdogan, "248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: Support for a color centre model for photosensitivity," Electron. Lett., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 385-387, Feb. 1993.
  36. M. Essid, J. Albert, J. L. Brebner and K. Awazu, "Correlation between initial oxygen-deficient center concentration and KrF excimer laser induced defects in thermally annealed Ge-doped optical fiber preforms," J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 246, no. 1/2, pp. 39-45, Apr. 1999.
  37. M. Fujimaki, T. Watanabe, T. Katoh, T. Kasahara, N. Miyazaki, Y. Ohki and H. Nishikawa, "Structures and generation mechanisms of paramagnetic centers and absorption bands responsible for Ge-doped silica optical-fiber gratings," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 3920-3926, Feb. 1998.
  38. H. Hosono, H. Mizuguchi, H. Kawazoe and J. Nishii, "Correlation between Ge E' centers and optical absorption bands in SiO2:GeO2 glasses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2, Lett., vol. 35, no. 2B, pp. L234-L236, Feb. 1996.
  39. B. Poumellec, M. Douay, J. Garapon and P. Niay, "Relationship between UV optical absorption and UV excited luminescence in Ge doped silica," Trends Appl. Spectrosc., vol. 4, pp. 325-353, 2002.
  40. B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage and J. F. Bayon, "UV-induced densification during Bragg gratings inscription in Ge:SiO2 preforms," Opt. Mater., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 441-449, Mar. 1995.
  41. B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay and J. F. Bayon, "The UV-induced refractive index gratings in Ge:SiO2 preforms: Additional CW experiments and the macroscopic origin of the change of index," J. Phys. D, Appl. Phys., vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1842-1856, Jul. 1996.
  42. B. Poumellec, I. Riant, P. Niay, P. Bernage and J. F. Bayon, "UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2 preforms," Opt. Mater., vol. 4, no. 2/3, pp. 404-409, Jan. 1995.
  43. P. Cordier, S. Dupont, M. Douay, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon and L. Dong, "Evidence by transmission electron microscopy of densification associated to Bragg grating photoimprinting in germanosilicate optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 70, no. 10, pp. 1204-1206, Mar. 1997.
  44. P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Cochet and B. Leuenberger, "Tension increase correlated to refractive index change in fibers containing UV-written Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett., vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1346-1348, Jun. 1995.
  45. P. Ledoux, "Mesure de l'état de contrainte dans les fibres et les préformes," Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Paris, France, Ingenior CNAM Report 2032, 1988.
  46. T. Tsaï, G. M. Williams and E. J. Friebele, "Index structure of fiber Bragg gratings in Ge-doped silica fibers," Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 224-226, 1997.
  47. A. Sakoh, M. Takahashi, T. Yoko, J. Nishii, H. Nishiyama and I. Miyamoto, "Photochemical process of divalent germanium responsible for refractive index change in GeO2-SiO2 glasses," Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 21, pp. 2679-2688, 2003.
  48. G. Brambilla, V. Pruneri, L. Reekie and D. N. Payne, "Enhanced photosensitivity in germanosilicate fibers exposed to CO2 laser radiation," Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 15, pp. 1023-1025, 1999.
  49. T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele and D. L. Griscom, "Thermal stability of self-organized gratings and defects in Ge-and Ge-P-doped silica core fibers," in Proc. SPIE Photosensitivity and Self-organization Optical Fibers and Waveguides, vol. 2044, Quebec City, QC, Canada, 1993, pp. 121-132.
  50. J. Canning, "The characteristic curve and site-selective laser excitation of local relaxation in glass," J. Chem. Phys., vol. 120, no. 20, pp. 9715-9719, 2004.
  51. B. Poumellec, "Links between writing and erasure (or stability) of Bragg gratings in disordered media," J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 239, no. 1-3, pp. 108-115, Oct. 1998.
  52. V. Beugin, P. Niay and M. Douay, "Isochronal annealing of Bragg gratings written in H2 -loaded or in UV-hypersensitized germano-phosphosilicate planar waveguides: A comparison," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 18, pp. 6777-6790, Sep. 2005.
  53. N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet and L. Dong, "Hydrogen induced reduction of axial stress in optical fiber cores," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 516-518, Jan. 1999.
  54. T. E. Tsai, G. M. Williams and E. J. Friebele, "Uniform component of index induced in Ge-doped silica fibers by spatially modulated ultraviolet light," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 72, no. 25, pp. 3243-3245, Jun. 1998.

Other (54)

R. M. Atkins, P. J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan and V. Mizrahi, "Mechanisms of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses," Electron. Lett., vol. 29, no. 14, pp. 1234-1235, Jul. 1993.

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard and M. D. Gallagher, "Annealing of Bragg gratings in hydrogen loaded optical fiber," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 2940-2945, Sep. 1995.

S. Kannan, J. Z. Y. Gus and P. J. Lemaire, "Thermal stability analysis of UV-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1478-1483, Aug. 1997.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 73-80, Jul. 1994.

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker and D. Goodchild, "Thermal decay of fiber Bragg gratings written in boron and germanium co-doped silica fiber," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1470-1477, Aug. 1997.

J. Canning and A. Canagasabey, "Hypersensitization of optical waveguides: Towards industrial applications," J. Microw. Optoelectron., vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 113-126, 2004.

M. Äslund, J. Canning and G. Yoffe, "Locking in photosensitivity in optical fibres and waveguides," Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 24, pp. 1826-1828, Dec. 1999.

G. E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley and C. R. Pollock, "Photosensitization of optical fiber by UV exposure of hydrogen loaded fiber," in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC), San Diego, CA, 1999, pp. PD20/1-PD20/3.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao and X. Y. Dong, "Highly stable fiber Bragg gratings written in hydrogen-loaded fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1349-1351, Oct. 2000.

J. Canning, "Photosensitization and photostabilization of laser induced index changes in optical fibres," Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 275-289, Jul. 2000.

A. Canagasabey, J. Canning and N. Groothoff, "355 nm hypersensitization of optical fibres," Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 13, pp. 1108-1110, 2003.

A. Canagasabey and J. Canning, "UV lamp hypersensitization of hydrogen loaded optical fibres," Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 1585-1589, 2003.

M. Lancry, P. Niay and M. Douay, "Comparing the properties of various sensitization methods in H2 -loaded, UV hypersensitized or OH-flooded standard germanosilicate fibers," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 4037-4043, May 2005.

M. Äslund and J. Canning, "Annealing properties of gratings written into UV pre-sensitized hydrogen out-diffused optical fiber," Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 692-694, May 2000.

J. Canning, M. Englund and K. Sommer, "Fiber gratings for high temperature sensor applications," Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 824-828, 2001.

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman and R. Tam, "Photosensitization of standard fibers with deep UV laser radiation," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1958-1968, Sep. 2003.

M. Fokine and W. Margulis, "Large increase in photosensitivity through massive hydroxyl formation," Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 302-304, 2000.

M. Fokine, "Photosensitivity, chemical composition gratings, and optical fiber based components," Ph.D. dissertation, Acreo AB, ISBN 91-7283-397-1, Royal Inst. Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 2002.

M. Lancry, P. Niay, M. Douay, P. Cordier, C. Depecker and I. Riant, "VUV and IR absorption spectra induced in pre-sensitized standard germanosilicate preform plates," in Proc. OSA Tech. Dig. Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling Glass Waveguides (BGPP), Monterey, CA, 2003,Paper MC2,. pp. 40-42.

M. Lancry, P. Niay, S. Bailleux, M. Douay, P. Cordier, C. Depecker and I. Riant, "Thermal stability of the 248 nm-induced pre-sensitization process in standard H2 -loaded germanosilicate fibers," Appl. Opt., vol. 41, no. 34, pp. 7197-7204, Dec. 2002.

D. M. Krol, R. M. Atkins and P. J. Lemaire, "Photoinduced second-harmonic generation and luminescence of defects in Ge-doped silica fibers," in Proc. SPIE, Int. Workshop Photoinduced Self-Organization Effects Optical Fiber, vol. 1516, Quebec City, QC, Canada, 1991, pp. 38-46.

M. Lancry, P. Niay, M. Douay, P. Cordier, C. Depecker and B. Poumellec, "VUV and IR absorption spectra induced in H2 -loaded and UV hyper-sensitized standard germanosilicate preform plates through exposure to ArF laser light," J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 351, no. 52-54, pp. 3773-3783, Dec. 2005.

A. Hidayat, Q. Wang, P. Niay, M. Douay, B. Poumellec, F. Kherbouche and I. Riant, "Temperature-induced reversible changes in fiber Bragg grating spectral characteristics," Appl. Opt., vol. 40, no. 16, pp. 2632-2642, 2001.

G. Meltz and W. W. Morey, "Bragg grating formation and germanosilicate fiber photosensitivity," in Proc. SPIE, Int. Workshop Photoinduced Self-Organization Effects Optical Fiber, vol. 1516, Quebec City, QC, Canada, 1991, pp. 185-199.

D. Ramecourt, P. Niay, P. Bernage, I. Riant and M. Douay, "Growth of strength of Bragg gratings written in H2 -loaded telecommunications fibre during CW UV post-exposure," Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 329-331, Feb. 1999.

D. Ramecourt, "Étude de la photosensibilité et de la stabilité de réseaux d'indice inscrits dans des fibres optiques germanosilicates hydrogénées," Ph.D. dissertation, Physics Departement, Univ. Lille, Lille, France, 2001.

J. Stone, "Interactions of hydrogen and deuterium with silica optical fibers: A review," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 5, pp. 712-733, May 1987.

Q. Zeng, J. F. Stebbins, A. D. Heaney and T. Erdogan, "Hydrogen speciation in hydrogen-loaded, germania-doped silica glass: A combined NMR and FTIR study of the effects of UV irradiations and heat treatment," J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 258, no. 1-3, pp. 78-91, Nov. 1999.

C. Dalle, P. Cordier, C. Depecker, P. Niay, P. Bernage and M. Douay, "Growth kinetics and thermal annealing of UV-induced H-bearing species in hydrogen loaded germanosilicate fibre preforms," J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 260, no. 1/2, pp. 83-98, Dec. 1999.

V. Grubsky, "Photosensitivity of germanium doped silica glass and fibers and its applications," Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Physics and Astronomy, Univ. Southern California, Los Angeles, 1999.

M. Lancry, "Contribution à l'étude de méthodes de sensibilisation de fibres optiques de communication et mécanismes associés," Ph.D. dissertation, Physics Departement, Univ. Lille, Lille, France, 2004.

M. Lancry, P. Niay, M. Douay, P. Cordier and C. Depecker, "VUV and IR absorption spectra in OH-flooded standard germanosilicate preform plates," presented at the Proc. OSA Tech. Dig. Bragg Gratings Photosensitivity and Poling Glass Waveguides (BGPP) Conf., Sydney, Australia,Paper 3, Session B05, 2005.

B. Leconte, "Contribution à l'étude de la photosensibilité des fibres en silice sous l'effet d'une insolation par un laser à ArF," Ph.D. dissertation, Physics Departement, Univ. Lille, Lille, France, 1998.

M. Fujimaki, T. Kasahara, S. Shimoto, N. Miyazaki, S. Tokuhiro, K. S. Seol and Y. Ohki, "Structural changes induced by KrF excimer laser photons in hydrogen-loaded Ge-doped silica glass," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 4682-4687, 1999.

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi and T. Erdogan, "248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: Support for a color centre model for photosensitivity," Electron. Lett., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 385-387, Feb. 1993.

M. Essid, J. Albert, J. L. Brebner and K. Awazu, "Correlation between initial oxygen-deficient center concentration and KrF excimer laser induced defects in thermally annealed Ge-doped optical fiber preforms," J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 246, no. 1/2, pp. 39-45, Apr. 1999.

M. Fujimaki, T. Watanabe, T. Katoh, T. Kasahara, N. Miyazaki, Y. Ohki and H. Nishikawa, "Structures and generation mechanisms of paramagnetic centers and absorption bands responsible for Ge-doped silica optical-fiber gratings," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 3920-3926, Feb. 1998.

H. Hosono, H. Mizuguchi, H. Kawazoe and J. Nishii, "Correlation between Ge E' centers and optical absorption bands in SiO2:GeO2 glasses," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2, Lett., vol. 35, no. 2B, pp. L234-L236, Feb. 1996.

B. Poumellec, M. Douay, J. Garapon and P. Niay, "Relationship between UV optical absorption and UV excited luminescence in Ge doped silica," Trends Appl. Spectrosc., vol. 4, pp. 325-353, 2002.

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage and J. F. Bayon, "UV-induced densification during Bragg gratings inscription in Ge:SiO2 preforms," Opt. Mater., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 441-449, Mar. 1995.

B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay and J. F. Bayon, "The UV-induced refractive index gratings in Ge:SiO2 preforms: Additional CW experiments and the macroscopic origin of the change of index," J. Phys. D, Appl. Phys., vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1842-1856, Jul. 1996.

B. Poumellec, I. Riant, P. Niay, P. Bernage and J. F. Bayon, "UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2 preforms," Opt. Mater., vol. 4, no. 2/3, pp. 404-409, Jan. 1995.

P. Cordier, S. Dupont, M. Douay, G. Martinelli, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon and L. Dong, "Evidence by transmission electron microscopy of densification associated to Bragg grating photoimprinting in germanosilicate optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 70, no. 10, pp. 1204-1206, Mar. 1997.

P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, F. Cochet and B. Leuenberger, "Tension increase correlated to refractive index change in fibers containing UV-written Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett., vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1346-1348, Jun. 1995.

P. Ledoux, "Mesure de l'état de contrainte dans les fibres et les préformes," Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Paris, France, Ingenior CNAM Report 2032, 1988.

T. Tsaï, G. M. Williams and E. J. Friebele, "Index structure of fiber Bragg gratings in Ge-doped silica fibers," Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 224-226, 1997.

A. Sakoh, M. Takahashi, T. Yoko, J. Nishii, H. Nishiyama and I. Miyamoto, "Photochemical process of divalent germanium responsible for refractive index change in GeO2-SiO2 glasses," Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 21, pp. 2679-2688, 2003.

G. Brambilla, V. Pruneri, L. Reekie and D. N. Payne, "Enhanced photosensitivity in germanosilicate fibers exposed to CO2 laser radiation," Opt. Lett., vol. 24, no. 15, pp. 1023-1025, 1999.

T. E. Tsai, E. J. Friebele and D. L. Griscom, "Thermal stability of self-organized gratings and defects in Ge-and Ge-P-doped silica core fibers," in Proc. SPIE Photosensitivity and Self-organization Optical Fibers and Waveguides, vol. 2044, Quebec City, QC, Canada, 1993, pp. 121-132.

J. Canning, "The characteristic curve and site-selective laser excitation of local relaxation in glass," J. Chem. Phys., vol. 120, no. 20, pp. 9715-9719, 2004.

B. Poumellec, "Links between writing and erasure (or stability) of Bragg gratings in disordered media," J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 239, no. 1-3, pp. 108-115, Oct. 1998.

V. Beugin, P. Niay and M. Douay, "Isochronal annealing of Bragg gratings written in H2 -loaded or in UV-hypersensitized germano-phosphosilicate planar waveguides: A comparison," Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 18, pp. 6777-6790, Sep. 2005.

N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet and L. Dong, "Hydrogen induced reduction of axial stress in optical fiber cores," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 516-518, Jan. 1999.

T. E. Tsai, G. M. Williams and E. J. Friebele, "Uniform component of index induced in Ge-doped silica fibers by spatially modulated ultraviolet light," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 72, no. 25, pp. 3243-3245, Jun. 1998.

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