Abstract

Coherent optical transmission systems offer enhanced possibilities concerning multilevel modulation and the electronic compensation of transmission impairments. One of the key components in a homodyne in-phase/quadrature (IQ) receiver is a 2 × 4 90° hybrid. However, this component is only commercially available in a form that requires an additional active control loop. This paper presents the different possible alternatives for the realization of the 2 × 4 90° hybrids and discusses their availability and properties, as well as the practical implementation considerations.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. Katoh and K. Kikuchi, "Unrepeated 210-km transmission with coherent detection and digital signal processing of 20-Gb/s QPSK signal," presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper OTuL4, 2005.
  2. S. Camatel, V. Ferrero, R. Gaudino and P. Poggiolini, "10 Gb/s 2-PSK transmission and homodyne coherent detection using commercial optical components," presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Rimini, Italy,Paper We4.P.122, 2003.
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  7. I. B. Djordjevic, M. C. Stefanovic and G. T. Djordjevic, "Performance optimization and exact laser linewidth requirements evaluation for optical PSK homodyne communication systems with costas loop or DDL," J. Opt. Commun., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 178-182, Oct. 1999.
  8. D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst and E. Dietrich, "Integrated optics eight-port 90° -hybrid on LiNbO3," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 794-798, May 1989.
  9. A. Kaplan and K. Achiam, "LiNbO3 integrated optical QPSK modulator and coherent receiver," in Proc. Eur. Conf. Integrated Optics (ECIO), Prague, Czech Republic, 2003,Paper WeA3.2,. pp. 79-82.
  10. T. Niemeier and R. Ulrich, "Quadrature outputs from fiber interferometer with 4 × 4 coupler," Opt. Lett., vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 677-679, Oct. 1986.
  11. M. R. Paiam and R. I. MacDonald, "Design of phased-array wavelength division multiplexers using multimode interference couplers," Appl. Opt., vol. 36, no. 21, pp. 5097-5108, Jul. 1997.
  12. E. C. M. Pennings, R. J. Deri, R. Bhat, T. R. Hayes and N. C. Andreadakis, "Ultracompact integrated all-passive optical 90° hybrid on InP using self-imaging," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 701-703, Jun. 1993.
  13. W. R. Leeb, "Optical 90° hybrid for costas-type receivers," Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 18, pp. 1431-1432, Aug. 1990.

Other (13)

D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. Katoh and K. Kikuchi, "Unrepeated 210-km transmission with coherent detection and digital signal processing of 20-Gb/s QPSK signal," presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Paper OTuL4, 2005.

S. Camatel, V. Ferrero, R. Gaudino and P. Poggiolini, "10 Gb/s 2-PSK transmission and homodyne coherent detection using commercial optical components," presented at the Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Rimini, Italy,Paper We4.P.122, 2003.

J. M. Kahn and K. P. Ho, "Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/ detection techniques for DWDM systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 259-272, Mar./Apr. 2004.

L. G. Kazovsky, R. Welter, A. F. Elfrefaie and W. Sessa, "Wide-linewidth phase diversity homodyne receivers," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 1527-1536, Oct. 1988.

B. F. Jorgensen, et al. "Analysis of amplifier noise in coherent optical communication systems with optical image rejection receivers," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 660-671, May 1992.

L. G. Kazovsky, "Decision-driven phase-locked loop for optical homodyne receivers: Performance analysis and laser linewidth requirements," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-3, no. 6, pp. 1238-1247, Dec. 1985.

I. B. Djordjevic, M. C. Stefanovic and G. T. Djordjevic, "Performance optimization and exact laser linewidth requirements evaluation for optical PSK homodyne communication systems with costas loop or DDL," J. Opt. Commun., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 178-182, Oct. 1999.

D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst and E. Dietrich, "Integrated optics eight-port 90° -hybrid on LiNbO3," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 794-798, May 1989.

A. Kaplan and K. Achiam, "LiNbO3 integrated optical QPSK modulator and coherent receiver," in Proc. Eur. Conf. Integrated Optics (ECIO), Prague, Czech Republic, 2003,Paper WeA3.2,. pp. 79-82.

T. Niemeier and R. Ulrich, "Quadrature outputs from fiber interferometer with 4 × 4 coupler," Opt. Lett., vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 677-679, Oct. 1986.

M. R. Paiam and R. I. MacDonald, "Design of phased-array wavelength division multiplexers using multimode interference couplers," Appl. Opt., vol. 36, no. 21, pp. 5097-5108, Jul. 1997.

E. C. M. Pennings, R. J. Deri, R. Bhat, T. R. Hayes and N. C. Andreadakis, "Ultracompact integrated all-passive optical 90° hybrid on InP using self-imaging," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 701-703, Jun. 1993.

W. R. Leeb, "Optical 90° hybrid for costas-type receivers," Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 18, pp. 1431-1432, Aug. 1990.

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