Abstract

Four wave mixing (FWM) is distinguished from other wavelength conversion techniques by its ability to simultaneously convert a number of input wavelength channels. In this case, optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is insufficient to describe the performance of the device as many effects are involved. A multiwavelength FWM model is used here to simulate a waveband converter (WBC). The numerical model predicts the waveform of the FWM product. Based on that output, the Q factor of the signal and the power penalty induced to the signal can be calculated to evaluate the performance of such a device. Meanwhile, an analytical model is used for the calculation of the signal power levels and the standard deviation of the fluctuation; hence, it describes the constituent effects-namely, the extinction ratio (ER) degradation, the OSNR degradation, the gain modulation (GM) related crosstalk, and interference. The model's validity is tested against the numerical results. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that a numerical model and an analytical model are used to systematically investigate a WBC and to identify the specific effects and derive the design rules. These rules are tested in the experiment. Finally, a tunable WBC (TWBC) based on the dual-pump configuration is described and implemented experimentally.

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Other (30)

S. J. B. Yoo, "Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 955-966, Jun. 1996.

M. Asghari, I. H. White and R. V. Penty, "Wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1181-1190, Jul. 1997.

C. Joergensen, et al. "All optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 1168-1180, Oct. 1997.

S. Diez, et al. "Four wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers for frequency conversion and fast optical switching," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 1131-1145, Oct. 1997.

D. Gerarhty, et al. "Wavelength conversion for WDM communications systems using four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 1146-1155, Oct. 1997.

X. Cao, V. Anand and C. Qia, "Waveband switching in optical networks," IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 105-112, Apr. 2003.

K. Inoue, T. Hasegawa, K. Oda and H. Toba, "Multichannel frequency conversion experiment using fibre four-wave mixing," Electron. Lett., vol. 29, no. 19, pp. 1708-1710, Sep. 1993.

D. Nesset, et al. "Simultaneous wavelength conversion of two 40 Gb/s channels using four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 107-108, Jan. 1998.

S. Watanabe, T. Naito and T. Chikama, "Compensation of chromatic dispersion in a single-mode fiber by optical phase conjugation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 92-95, Jan. 1993.

S. Watanabe and T. Chikama, "Cancellation of four-wave mixing in multichannel fibre transmission by midway optical phase conjugation," Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1156-1157, Jul. 1994.

W. Pieper, et al. "Nonlinearity-insensitive standard-fibre transmission based on optical-phase conjugation in a semiconductor laser amplifier," Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 724-726, Apr. 1994.

J. P. R. Lacey, et al. "Four-channel WDM optical phase conjugator using four-wave mixing in a single semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 743-744, Apr. 1995.

R. Schnabel, et al. "Polarization insensitive frequency conversion of a 10-channel OFDM signal using four-wave mixing in a semiconductor laser amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 56-58, Jan. 1994.

J. P. R. Lacey, S. J. Madden and M. A Summerfield, "Four-channel polarization-insensitive optically transparent wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1355-1357, Oct. 1997.

C. Politi and M. O'Mahony, "Simultaneous processing and routing of packets in a synchronous optical packet switched network," IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E86-B, pp. 1515-1524, 2003.

E. Yamazaki, et al. "Widely tunable multichannel wavelength conversion using multiple wavelength quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide," Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 492-493, Apr. 2004.

S. J. B. Yoo, "Polarisation independent, multi-channel, multi-format wavelength conversion by difference frequency generation in AlGaAs waveguides," in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Madrid, Spain, 1998, pp. 653-654.

S. J. B. Yoo, et al. "Simultaneous multi-channel conversion of analog and digital signals by polarization independent difference-frequency-generation," in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), vol. 4, San Diego, CA, 1999, pp. 36-38.

S. J. B. Yoo, et al. "Simultaneous wavelength conversion of 2.5-Gb/s and 10-Gb/s signal channels by difference-frequency generation in an AlGaAs waveguide," in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), San Jose, CA, 1998, pp. 106-107.

C. Politi, et al. "Dynamic behaviour of wavelength converters based on FWM in SOAs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron.,

Y. Kim, et al. "Analysis of frequency chirping and extinction ratio of optical phase conjugate signals by four wave mixing in SOAs," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 873-879, May/Jun. 1999.

G. P. Agrawal, "Population pulsations and nondegenerate four-wave mixing in semiconductor lasers and amplifiers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 147-159, 1998.

M. Summerfield and R. Tucker, "Frequency domain model of multiwave mixing in bulk semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 839-850, May/Jun. 1999.

G. P. Agrawal, Fibre Optic Communication Systems, New York: Wiley, 2002.

D. Alexandropoulos and M. Adams, "Theoretical study of GaInNAs-GaAs-based semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 647-655, May 2003.

K. Inoue, "Crosstalk and its power penalty in multichannel transmission due to gain saturation in a semiconductor laser amplifier," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 1118-1124, Jul. 1989.

H. Takanishi, K. Oda and H. Toda, "Impact of crosstalk in an arrayed-waveguide multiplexer on N × N optical interconnection," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1097-1105, Jun. 1996.

C. T. Politi, et al. "Optical cross-connect architecture using waveband conversion and a passive wavelength router," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.-Optoelectron., vol. 152, no. 4, pp. 215-221, Aug. 2005.

J. Zhou, N. Park, J. W. Dawson and K. J. Vahala, "Terahertz four-wave mixing spectroscopy for study of ultrafast dynamics in a semiconductor optical amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett, vol. 63, no. 19, pp. 1179-1181, Aug. 1993.

J. P. R. Lacey, M. Summerfiel and S. J. Madden, "Tunability of polarisation insensitive wavelength converters based on four wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2419-2427, Dec. 1998.

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