Abstract

We demonstrate optical performance monitoring (OPM) using intensity autocorrelations of 10-Gb/s return-to-zero (RZ) data. Data stream intensity autocorrelations are used for the quantitative determination of the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) and accumulated dispersion values up to half the Talbot dispersion. Autocorrelations are performed using sensitive two-photon absorption in photon counting silicon avalanche photodiodes. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the retrieval of optical signal-to-noise ratio values in the presence of large accumulated dispersion.

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  1. M. Bischoff, M. N. Huber, O. Jahreis and F. Derr, "Operation and maintenance for an all-optical transport network," IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 136-142, Nov. 1996.
  2. D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein and T. Landolsi, et al. "Optical performance monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 294-304, Jan. 2004.
  3. D. C. Kilper, W. Weingartner, S. Hunsche and A. Azarov, "Q-factor monitoring using FEC for fault-management applications," J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 651-663, Aug. 2004.
  4. D. C. Kilper and W. Weingartner, "Monitoring optical network performance degradation due to amplifier noise," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1171-1178, May 2003.
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  6. I. Shake, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama and Y. Yamabayashi, "Quality monitoring of optical signals influenced by chromatic dispersion in a transmission fiber using averaged Q-factor evaluation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 385-387, Apr. 2001.
  7. J. Li, J. Hansryd, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson and S. N. Knudsen, "300 Gb/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber-based parametric amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 987-989, Sep. 2001.
  8. P. S. André, J. L. Pinto, A. L. J. Teixeira, J. F. da Rocha and T. Almeida, et al. "Optical-signal-quality monitor for bit-error-ratio assessment in transparent DWDM networks based on asynchronously sampled amplitude histograms," J. Opt. Netw., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 118-128, Mar. 2002.
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  14. J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim and Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 88-90, Jan. 2001.
  15. H. R. Stuart, "Optical performance monitoring using narrowband radio-frequency analysis at the half-clock frequency," J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 396-409, Jun. 2004.
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  17. L. P. Barry, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley and J. D. Harvey, "Autocorrelation and ultrafast optical thresholding at 1.5 µm using a commercial InGaAsP 1.3 µm laser diode," Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 358-360, Feb. 1998.
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  19. C. Xu, J. M. Roth, W. H. Knox and K. Bergman, "Ultra-sensitive autocorrelation of 1.5 µm light with single photon counting silicon avalanche photodiode," Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 86-88, Jan. 2002.
  20. T. Inui, K. R. Tamura, K. Mori and T. Morioka, "Bit rate flexible chirp measurement technique using two-photon absorption," Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 23, pp. 1459-1460, Nov. 2002.
  21. S. Wielandy, M. Fishteyn, T. Her, D. Kudelko and C. Zhang, "Real-time measurement of accumulated chromatic dispersion for automatic dispersion compensation," Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 20, pp. 1198-1199, Sep. 2002.
  22. K. Taira, Y. Fukuchi, R. Ohta, K. Katoh and K. Kikuchi, "Background-free intensity autocorrelator employing Si avalanche photodiode as two-photon absorber," Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 23, pp. 1465-1466, Nov. 2002.
  23. K. Kikuchi, "Optical sampling system at 1.5 µm using two photon absorption in Si avalanche photodiode," Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 13, pp. 1354-1355, Jun. 1998.
  24. C. Rullière, Femtosecond Laser Pulses: Principles and Experiments, Berlin: Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1998.
  25. H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. A. Dunbar and J. Hegarty, et al. "Two-photon absorption photocurrent enhancement in bulk AlGaAs semiconductor microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 80, no. 8, pp. 1328-1330, Feb. 2002.
  26. S.-D. Yang, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran and M. M. Fejer, "400-photon-per-pulse ultrashort pulse autocorrelation measurement with aperiodically poled lithium niobate waveguides at 1.55 µm," Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 17, pp. 2070-2072, Sep. 2004.
  27. J. Azaña and M. A. Muriel, "Temporal self-imaging effects: Theory and application for multiplying pulse repetition rates," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 728-744, Jul./Sep. 2001.

Other (27)

M. Bischoff, M. N. Huber, O. Jahreis and F. Derr, "Operation and maintenance for an all-optical transport network," IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 136-142, Nov. 1996.

D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein and T. Landolsi, et al. "Optical performance monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 294-304, Jan. 2004.

D. C. Kilper, W. Weingartner, S. Hunsche and A. Azarov, "Q-factor monitoring using FEC for fault-management applications," J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 651-663, Aug. 2004.

D. C. Kilper and W. Weingartner, "Monitoring optical network performance degradation due to amplifier noise," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1171-1178, May 2003.

I. Shake, E. Otani, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama and Y. Yamabayashi, et al. "Bit rate flexible quality monitoring of 10 to 160 Gb/s optical signals based on optical sampling technique," Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 25, pp. 2087-2088, Dec. 2000.

I. Shake, H. Takara, K. Uchiyama and Y. Yamabayashi, "Quality monitoring of optical signals influenced by chromatic dispersion in a transmission fiber using averaged Q-factor evaluation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 385-387, Apr. 2001.

J. Li, J. Hansryd, P. O. Hedekvist, P. A. Andrekson and S. N. Knudsen, "300 Gb/s eye-diagram measurement by optical sampling using fiber-based parametric amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 987-989, Sep. 2001.

P. S. André, J. L. Pinto, A. L. J. Teixeira, J. F. da Rocha and T. Almeida, et al. "Optical-signal-quality monitor for bit-error-ratio assessment in transparent DWDM networks based on asynchronously sampled amplitude histograms," J. Opt. Netw., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 118-128, Mar. 2002.

S. Nogiwa, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Ohta and Y. Endo, "Highly sensitive and time-resolving optical sampling system using thin PPLN crystal," Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 20, pp. 1727-1728, Sep. 2000.

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon and M. G. Raymer, "Linear optical sampling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1746-1748, Dec. 2003.

S. Li and D. V. Kuksenkov, "A novel dispersion monitoring technique based on four-wave mixing in optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 942-944, Mar. 2004.

C. Dorrer and X. Liu, "Noise monitoring of optical signals using RF spectrum analysis and its application to phase-shift-keyed signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1781-1783, Jul. 2004.

S. Wielandy, M. Fishteyn and B. Zhu, "Optical performance monitoring using nonlinear detection," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 784-793, Mar. 2004.

J. H. Lee, D. K. Jung, C. H. Kim and Y. C. Chung, "OSNR monitoring technique using polarization-nulling method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 88-90, Jan. 2001.

H. R. Stuart, "Optical performance monitoring using narrowband radio-frequency analysis at the half-clock frequency," J. Opt. Netw., vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 396-409, Jun. 2004.

P. Vorreau, D. C. Kilper and J. Leuthold, "Optical noise and dispersion monitoring with SOA-based optical 2R regenerator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 244-246, Jan. 2005.

L. P. Barry, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley and J. D. Harvey, "Autocorrelation and ultrafast optical thresholding at 1.5 µm using a commercial InGaAsP 1.3 µm laser diode," Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 358-360, Feb. 1998.

J. M. Roth, T. E. Murphy and C. Xu, "Ultrasensitive and high-dynamic-range two-photon absorption in a GaAs photomultiplier tube," Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 23, pp. 2076-2078, Dec. 2002.

C. Xu, J. M. Roth, W. H. Knox and K. Bergman, "Ultra-sensitive autocorrelation of 1.5 µm light with single photon counting silicon avalanche photodiode," Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 86-88, Jan. 2002.

T. Inui, K. R. Tamura, K. Mori and T. Morioka, "Bit rate flexible chirp measurement technique using two-photon absorption," Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 23, pp. 1459-1460, Nov. 2002.

S. Wielandy, M. Fishteyn, T. Her, D. Kudelko and C. Zhang, "Real-time measurement of accumulated chromatic dispersion for automatic dispersion compensation," Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 20, pp. 1198-1199, Sep. 2002.

K. Taira, Y. Fukuchi, R. Ohta, K. Katoh and K. Kikuchi, "Background-free intensity autocorrelator employing Si avalanche photodiode as two-photon absorber," Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 23, pp. 1465-1466, Nov. 2002.

K. Kikuchi, "Optical sampling system at 1.5 µm using two photon absorption in Si avalanche photodiode," Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 13, pp. 1354-1355, Jun. 1998.

C. Rullière, Femtosecond Laser Pulses: Principles and Experiments, Berlin: Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1998.

H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. A. Dunbar and J. Hegarty, et al. "Two-photon absorption photocurrent enhancement in bulk AlGaAs semiconductor microcavities," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 80, no. 8, pp. 1328-1330, Feb. 2002.

S.-D. Yang, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran and M. M. Fejer, "400-photon-per-pulse ultrashort pulse autocorrelation measurement with aperiodically poled lithium niobate waveguides at 1.55 µm," Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 17, pp. 2070-2072, Sep. 2004.

J. Azaña and M. A. Muriel, "Temporal self-imaging effects: Theory and application for multiplying pulse repetition rates," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 728-744, Jul./Sep. 2001.

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