Abstract

All-optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks are expected to realize the potential of optical technologies to implement different networking functionalities in the optical domain. A key component in WDM networks is the optical switch that provides the basic functionality of connecting input ports to output ports. Existing WDM switches make use of space switches and wavelength converters (WCs) to realize switching. However, this not only increases the size and the complexity of the switch but also bears heavily on the cost. In this paper, the authors propose a new class of photonic switch architectures called wavelength-exchanging cross connect (WEX) that provides several advantages over existing switches by enabling a single-step space switching and wavelength conversion and thus eliminating the need for a separate conversion stage. This greatly enhances the switch architecture by reducing its size and complexity. The new class of cross-connect architectures is based on the proposed concept of a wavelength-exchange optical crossbar (WOC). The WOC concept is realized using the simultaneous exchange between two optical signals. The proposed WEX architecture is highly scalable. To establish scalability, the authors present a systematic method of developing instances of the switch architectures of an arbitrary large size.

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Other (40)

N. Antoniades, S. J. B. Yoo, K. Bala, G. Ellinas and T. E. Stern, "An architecture for a wavelength-interchanging cross-connect utilizing parametric wavelength converters", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1113-1125, Jul. 1999.

V. E. Benes, "On rearrangeable three-stage connecting networks," Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. XLI, no. 5, pp. 1481-1492, Sep. 1962.

X. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong and C. Qiao, "A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1081-1095, Sep. 2003.

A. Chowdhury, S. C. Hagness and L. McCaughan, "Simultaneous optical wavelength interchange with a two-dimensional second-order nonlinear photonic crystal," Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 832-834, Jun. 2000.

A. Chowdhury, C. Staus, B. F. Boland, T. F. Kuech and L. McCaughan, "Experimental demonstration of 1535-1555 nm simultaneous optical wavelength interchange with a nonlinear photonic crystal," Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 17, pp. 1353-1355, Sep. 2001.

C. Clos, "A study of non-blocking switching networks," Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 32, pp. 407-424, 1958.

E. Ciaramella, "Introducing wavelength granularity to reduce the complexity of optical cross connects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 699-701, Jun. 2000.

E. Ciaramella, G. Contestabile, F. Curti and A. D'Ottavi, "Fast tunable wavelength conversion for all-optical packet switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1361-1363, Oct. 2000.

L. H. Domash, et al. "Electronically switchable waveguide Bragg gratings for WDM routing," in Proc. Dig. IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings-WDM Components Technology, Montreal, QC, Canada, 1997, pp. 34-35.

C. M. Gallep and E. Conforti, "Reduction of semiconductor optical amplifier switching times by preimpulse step-injected current technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 902-904, Jul. 2002.

H. S. Hinton, "A nonblocking optical interconnection network using directional couplers," in Proc. Global Telecommunications (GLOBECOM), Atlanta, GA, 1984, pp. 26.5.1-26.5.5.

M. Kondo, N. Takado, K. Komatsu and Y. Ohta, "32 switch elements integrated low-crosstalk LiNbO3 4 × 4 optical matrix switch," in Proc. Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication-Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (IOOC-ECOC), Venice, Italy, 1985, pp. 361-364.

R. Krähenbühl, et al. "Performance and modeling of advanced Ti:LiNbO3 digital optical switches," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 92-99, Jan. 2002.

S. Kuroyanagi and T. Maeda, "An optical cross-connect architecture incorporating failure recovery using reserved wavelengths," in Proc. Photonic Switching Conf., vol. 12, Salt Lake City, UT, 1995, pp. 73-75.

K.-C. Lee and V. O. K. Li, "A wavelength-convertible optical network," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 962-970, May/Jun. 1993.

C. C. Lu and R. A. Thompson, "The double-layer network architecture for photonic switching," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1482-1489, Aug. 1994.

K. Moei, H. Takara and M. Saruwatari, "Wavelength interchange with an optical parametric loop mirror," Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 520-522, Mar. 1997.

K. Mori, T. Morioka and M. Saruwatari, "Optical parametric loop mirror," Opt. Lett., vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 1424-1426, Jun. 1995.

B. Mukherjee, "WDM optical communication networks: Progress and challenges," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1810-1824, Oct. 2000.

H. Q. Ngo, D. Pan and C. Qiao, "Nonblocking WDM switches based on arrayed waveguide grating and limited wavelength conversion," in Proc. 23rd Annu. Joint Conf. IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM), Hong Kong, 2004, pp. 1352-1362.

L. Noirie, C. Blaizot and E. Dotaro, "Multi-granularity optical cross-connect," in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Munich, Germany, 2000,Paper 9.2.4,. pp. 264-265.

D. C. Opferman and N. T. Tsao-Wu, "On a class of rearrangeable switching networks, Part I: Control algorithm," Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 5, no. 50, pp. 1579-1600, May/Jun. 1971.

X. Qin and Y. Yang, "Nonblocking WDM switching networks with full and limited wavelength conversion," IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 2032-2041, Dec. 2002.

X. Qin and Y. Yang, "Multicast connection capacity of WDM switching networks with limited wavelength conversion," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 526-538, Jun. 2004.

B. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, "Wavelength conversion in WDM networking," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1061-1073, Sep. 1998.

J. Ramamirtham and J. S. Turner, "Design of wavelength converting switches for optical burst switching," in Proc. 21st Annu. Joint Conf. IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM), vol. 2, New York, 2002, pp. 1162-1171.

A. Rasala and G. Wilfong, "Strictly non-blocking WDM cross-connects for heterogeneous networks," in Proc. 32nd Annu. ACM Symp. Theory Computing (STOC), Portland, OR, 2000, pp. 513-524.

A. Rasala and G. Wilfong, "Strictly non-blocking WDM cross-connects," in Proc. 11th Annu. ACM-SIAM Symp. Discrete Algorithms (SODA), San Francisco, CA, 2000, pp. 606-615.

N. A. Riza and S. Yuan, "Low optical interchannel crosstalk, fast switching speed, polarization independent 2 × 2 fiber optic switch using ferroelectric liquid crystals," Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 13, pp. 1341-1342, Jun. 1998.

R. A. Spanke and V. E. Benes, "An N-stage planar optical permutation network," Appl. Opt., vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1226-1229, Apr. 1987.

R. A. Spanke, "Architectures for large nonblocking optical space switches," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-22, no. 6, pp. 964-968, Jun. 1986.

R. A. Thompson and D. K. Hunter, "Elementary photonic switching modules in three divisions," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 362-373, Feb. 1996.

N. P. Torrington-Smith, H. T. Mouftah and M. H. Rahman, "An evaluation of optical switch architectures utilizing wavelength converters," in Proc. Can. Conf. Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol. 2, Halifax, NS, Canada, 2000, pp. 1008-1013.

K. Uesaka, K. K.-Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic and L. G. Kazovsky, "Wavelength exchange in a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber: Theory and experiments," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 560-568, May/Jun. 2002.

A. Varma and C. S. Raghavendra, Interconnection Networks for Multiprocessors and Multicomputers: Theory and Practice, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1994.

G. Wilfong, B. Mikkelsen, C. Doerr and M. Zirngibl, "WDM cross-connect architectures with reduced complexity," J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1732-1741, Oct. 1999.

K. Y. Wong, et al. "Demonstration of wavelength exchange in a highly-nonlinear fiber," in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001,Paper We.L.1.3,. pp. 272-273.

K. K. Y. Wong, M. E. Marhic, K. Uesaka and L. G. Kazovsky, "Wavelength exchange: A novel function for optical networks," Int. J. Inf. Sci., vol. 149, no. 1-3, pp. 161-169, Jan. 2003.

Y. Yang and J. Wang, "WDM optical switching networks using sparse crossbars," in Proc. 23st Annu. Joint Conf. IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM), Hong Kong, 2004, pp. 1841-1852.

J. M. Yates and M. P. Rumsewicz, "Wavelength converters in dynamically reconfigurable WDM networks," Commun. Surveys Tuts., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 2-15, 2nd Quarter 1999.

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