Abstract

The authors propose a self-referenced method to measure the phase difference between optical beat notes in passively mode-locked self-pulsating (SP) distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers with high-frequency repetition rate (>10 GHz). The method is based on successive intensity autocorrelation analysis of groups of three adjacent longitudinal modes. Each group contains two beat notes at the repetition frequency, and a first-order Fourier analysis of the intensity autocorrelation signal allows the determination of the phase difference between the two beat notes. It can be used for a spectrum containing any number of modes by filtering successively three adjacent modes and measuring the related autocorrelation signal. The authors show that the pulse temporal profile can be reconstructed from the measurements of the optical spectrum and of the beat notes' phase differences. The authors applied this method to an SP DBR laser with a 40-GHz repetition rate.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. A. Jourdan, "The perspective of optical packet switching in IP dominant backbone and metropolitan networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 136-141, Mar. 2001.
  2. O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain and F. Seguineau, "Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2779-2790, Nov. 2003.
  3. S. Bauer, C. Bornholdt, O. Brox, D. Hoffman, M. Mohrle, G. Sahin, B. Sartorius and S. Schelhase, "Ultrafast locking optical clock for IP packet switching applications", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., vol. 1, Baltimore, MD, 2000,Paper TuF5-1,. pp. 78-80.
  4. O. Brox, S. Bauer, C. Bobbert, G. Bramann, J. Kreissl, B. Sartorius, M. Schmidt, K. Schuh, B. Junginger and E. Lach, "160 to 40 Gb/s demultiplexing using a self-pulsating laser based clock recovery", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., vol. 1, Atlanta, GA, 2003,Paper MF85,. pp. 105-106.
  5. G. Raybon, "Optical 3R regeneration in 40 Gb/s pseudo-random transmission systems", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., vol. 1, Atlanta, GA, 2003,Paper TuH1,. pp. 191-192.
  6. C. Gosset, O. Leclerc, E. Pincemin, O. Audouin, L. du Mouza and Y. Jaouen, "Impact of electrostriction in single-channel 40 Gb/s undersea systems in the presence of dispersion-management or optical 3R regeneration", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., vol. 2, Baltimore, MD, 2000,Paper WM27-1,. pp. 290-292.
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  16. K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, R. S. Grant, K. X. Liu, A. Dienes, W. E. White and A. Sullivan, "Direct measurement of the spectral phase of femtosecond pulses", Opt. Lett., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 904-906, Apr. 1995.
  17. P. Kockaert, M. Peeters, S. Coen, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman and O. Deparis, "Simple amplitude and phase measuring technique for ultrahigh-repetition-rate lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 187-189, Feb. 2000.
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  19. J. H. Seldin and J. R. Fienup, "Iterative blind deconvolution algorithm applied to phase retrieval", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 428-433, Mar. 1990.
  20. R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweester, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating", Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 3277-3295, Sep. 1997.

Other (20)

A. Jourdan, "The perspective of optical packet switching in IP dominant backbone and metropolitan networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 136-141, Mar. 2001.

O. Leclerc, B. Lavigne, E. Balmefrezol, P. Brindel, L. Pierre, D. Rouvillain and F. Seguineau, "Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2779-2790, Nov. 2003.

S. Bauer, C. Bornholdt, O. Brox, D. Hoffman, M. Mohrle, G. Sahin, B. Sartorius and S. Schelhase, "Ultrafast locking optical clock for IP packet switching applications", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., vol. 1, Baltimore, MD, 2000,Paper TuF5-1,. pp. 78-80.

O. Brox, S. Bauer, C. Bobbert, G. Bramann, J. Kreissl, B. Sartorius, M. Schmidt, K. Schuh, B. Junginger and E. Lach, "160 to 40 Gb/s demultiplexing using a self-pulsating laser based clock recovery", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., vol. 1, Atlanta, GA, 2003,Paper MF85,. pp. 105-106.

G. Raybon, "Optical 3R regeneration in 40 Gb/s pseudo-random transmission systems", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., vol. 1, Atlanta, GA, 2003,Paper TuH1,. pp. 191-192.

C. Gosset, O. Leclerc, E. Pincemin, O. Audouin, L. du Mouza and Y. Jaouen, "Impact of electrostriction in single-channel 40 Gb/s undersea systems in the presence of dispersion-management or optical 3R regeneration", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf., vol. 2, Baltimore, MD, 2000,Paper WM27-1,. pp. 290-292.

K. Sato, "Optical pulse generation using Fabry-Pérot lasers under continuous wave operation", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 1288-1293, Sep./Oct. 2003.

G.-H. Duan, C. Gosset, B. Lavigne, R. Brenot, B. Thedrez, J. Jacquet and O. Leclerc, "40 GHz all-optical clock recovery using polarization-insensitive distributed Bragg reflector lasers", in Proc. Conf. Laser and Electro-Optics, Baltimore, MD, 2003,Paper CThQ5,. pp. 1738-1740.

H. Bao, Y. J. Wen and H. F. Liu, "Impact of saturable absorption on performance of optical clock recovery using a mode-locked multisection semiconductor laser", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 1177-1185, Sep. 2004.

H. Bachert, P. G. Eliseev, M. A. Manko, V. P. Strahov, S. Raab and C. M. Thay, "Multimode operation and mode-locking effect in injection lasers", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-11, no. 7, pp. 507-510, Jul. 1975.

J. Renaudier, G.-H. Duan, J.-G. Provost, H. Debregeas-Sillard and P. Gallion, "Phase correlation between longitudinal modes in semiconductor self-pulsating DBR lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 741-743, Apr. 2005.

Y. Nomura, S. Ochi, N. Tomita, K. Akiyama and T. Isu, "Mode locking in Fabry-Pérot semiconductor lasers", Phys. Rev. A, Gen. Phys., vol. 65, no. 4, p. 043807, 2002.

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 571-579, Feb. 1993.

R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, "Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: Frequency-resolved optical gating", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1101-1111, May 1993.

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, "Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses", Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 792-794, May 1998.

K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, R. S. Grant, K. X. Liu, A. Dienes, W. E. White and A. Sullivan, "Direct measurement of the spectral phase of femtosecond pulses", Opt. Lett., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 904-906, Apr. 1995.

P. Kockaert, M. Peeters, S. Coen, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman and O. Deparis, "Simple amplitude and phase measuring technique for ultrahigh-repetition-rate lasers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 187-189, Feb. 2000.

G. R. Ayers and J. C. Dainty, "Iterative blind deconvolution method and its applications", Opt. Lett., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 547-549, Jul. 1988.

J. H. Seldin and J. R. Fienup, "Iterative blind deconvolution algorithm applied to phase retrieval", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 428-433, Mar. 1990.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweester, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating", Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 3277-3295, Sep. 1997.

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