Abstract

Polymeric optical waveguide (POW) devices connectable to plastic optical fibers (POFs) fabricated by hot embossing using thermo-plastic resin are presented. Optical waveguides with large core sizes of 500 and 1000 µm were fabricated, and a low propagation loss of ~ 0.2 dB/cm at 650 nm was achieved. A thick photoresist original master to obtain a stamper for hot embossing was fabricated by photolithography with a photoresist. Using photomasks with different patterns, POW device structures were fabricated. Two POW device structures are realized: one is a passive alignment structure and the other is a Y-branch-type POW. By passive alignment structure, POWs directly connected to POFs were realized, and the coupling loss from POF to POF through POW was measured to be 1.6 dB at an optimum core width of 900 µm for 980-µm core size POFs. Y-branch-type POWs with large core size of 1000 µm, branching angle from 2° to 10°, and branching top part radius of 200 µm were fabricated. An output power ratio of 1:1 from each output port was realized. A compact-size Y-branch-type waveguide device was also proposed. POWs with high thermal resistance of more than 200 °C were also realized by hot replication using thermo-curable multifunctional methacrylate monomers.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. T. Richner, "1st POF house in Switzerland", in Proc. Int. Conf. POF, Nürnberg, Germany,Sep. 2004, pp. 40-45.
  2. U. Schelinski, K. Frommhagen and M. Scholles, "A home networking infrastructure using POF based on IEEE 1394", in Proc. Int. Conf. POF, Nürnberg, Germany,Sep. 2004, pp. 59-66.
  3. H. Hurt, J. Wittl and M. Weigert, "Automotive fiber optic transceiver drive the change of datacom applications towards POF", in Proc. Int. Conf. POF, Nürnberg, Germany,Sep. 2004, pp. 378-385.
  4. Y. Tanokura, "BMW to use long 50 m POF for internal LAN in new car model", Nikkei Electron., no. 811, p. 29, 2001.
  5. M. Kagami, K. Hasegawa and H. Ito, "Simultaneous fabrication of optical channel waveguides and out-of-plane branching mirrors from a polymeric slab structure", Appl. Opt., vol. 36, no. 30, pp. 7700-7707, Oct. 1997.
  6. J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Hida, S. Sasaki and T. Maruno, "Fluorinated polyimide waveguides with low polarization-dependent loss and their applications to thermooptic switches", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1024-1029, Jun. 1998.
  7. K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, S. Tomaru and S. Imamura, "Multimode polymeric optical waveguides with high thermal stability using UV cured epoxy resins", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1, Regul. Rap. Short Notes, vol. 37, no. 6B, pp. 3662-3664, Jun. 1998.
  8. O. S. Rösch, W. Bernhard, T. M. Fiedler, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, R. Buestrich and M. Popall, "High performance low cost fabrication method for integrated polymer optical devices", in Proc. SPIE, Denver, CO, 1999, pp. 214-224.
  9. J.-S. Kim, J.-W. Kang and J. J. Kim, "Simple and low cost fabrication of thermally stable polymeric multimode waveguides using a UV-curable epoxy", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1, Regul. Rap. Short Notes, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 1277-1279, Mar. 2003.
  10. R. S. Fan and R. B. Hooker, "Tapered polymer single-mode waveguides for mode transformation", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 466-474, Mar. 1999.
  11. M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, G. R. Möhlmann, M. C. Flipse and M. B. J. Diemeer, "Second harmonic generation in polymeric channel waveguides using modal dispersion", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, no. 21, pp. 2009-2010, Oct. 1996.
  12. Y. Y. Maruo, S. Sasaki and T. Tamamura, "Channel-optical-waveguide fabrication based on electron-beam irradiation of polyimides", Appl. Opt., vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1047-1052, Feb. 1995.
  13. M. Kagami, T. Yamashita and H. Ito, "Light-induced self-written three-dimensional optical waveguide", Appl. Opt., vol. 79, no. 8, pp. 1079-1081, 2001.
  14. O. Sugihara, H. Tsuchie, H. Endo, N. Okamoto, T. Yamashita, M. Kagami and T. Kaino, "Light-induced self-written polymeric optical waveguides for single-mode propagation and for optical interconnections", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 804-806, Mar. 2004.
  15. M. Kagami, M. Yonemura, A. Kawasaki and T. Yamashita, "Three-dimensional optical circuits using light-induced self-written waveguide technique", in Proc. Int. Conf. POF, Tokyo, Japan,Sep. 2002, pp. 29-31.
  16. S. Lehmacher and A. Neyer, "Integration of polymer optical waveguides into printed circuit boards", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1052-1053, Jun. 1996.
  17. T. Paatzsch, H.-D. Bauer, A. Gaudron, B. Jobst, S. Stadler, M. Popp, I. Smaglinski and W. Ehrfeld, "Polymer star couplers for optical backplane interconnects fabricated by LIGA technique", in Proc. Int. Conf. POF, Chiba, Japan,Jul. 1999, pp. 226-229.
  18. P. M. Ferm and L. W. Shacklette, "High volume manufacturing of polymer planar waveguides via UV-embossing", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4106, San Diego, CA, 2000, pp. 1-10.
  19. D. Fischer and E. Voges, "Multimode polymeric waveguide devices fabricated by two-component injection molding", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 19, pp. 1626-1627, Sep. 1997.
  20. T. Knoche, L. Müller, R. Klein and A. Neyer, "Low loss polymer waveguides at 1300 and 1550 nm using halogenated acrylates", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, no. 14, pp. 1284-1285, Jul. 1996.
  21. H. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, T. Kaino, N. Okamoto and M. Hosino, "Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with large cores fabricated by hot embossing", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 23, pp. 2378-2380, Dec. 2003.
  22. H. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, T. Kaino, N. Okamoto, M. Tomiki and M. Hosino, "Fabrication method of large core polymeric optical waveguide through replication process using anisotropically etched silicon", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 5351, San Jose, CA, 2004, pp. 268-275.
  23. M. Kagami, H. Ito, T. Ichikawa, S. Kato, M. Matsuda and N. Takahashi, "Fabrication of large-core, high-\Delta optical waveguides in polymers", Appl. Opt., vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1041-1046, Feb. 1995.
  24. M. Kagami and H. Ito, "Multimode power divider using radiation from tight bending waveguide", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 2028-2033, Nov. 1998.
  25. C.-G. Choi, S.-P. Han, B. C. Kim, S.-H. Ahn and M.-Y. Jeong, "Fabrication of large-core 1 × 16 optical power splitters in polymers using hot-embossing process", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 825-827, Jun. 2003.
  26. C.-W. Hsu, H.-L. Chen and W.-S. Wang, "Compact Y-branch power splitter based on simplified coherent coupling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1103-1105, Aug. 2003.
  27. A. Rogner, "Micromoulding of passive network components", in Proc. Int. Conf. POF, Paris, France,Jun. 1992, pp. 102-104.
  28. A. Rogner and H. Pannhoff, "Characterization and qualification of moulded couplers for POF-networks", in Proc. Int. Conf. POF, Hague, The Netherlands,Jun. 1993, pp. 136-139.

Other

T. Richner, "1st POF house in Switzerland", in Proc. Int. Conf. POF, Nürnberg, Germany,Sep. 2004, pp. 40-45.

U. Schelinski, K. Frommhagen and M. Scholles, "A home networking infrastructure using POF based on IEEE 1394", in Proc. Int. Conf. POF, Nürnberg, Germany,Sep. 2004, pp. 59-66.

H. Hurt, J. Wittl and M. Weigert, "Automotive fiber optic transceiver drive the change of datacom applications towards POF", in Proc. Int. Conf. POF, Nürnberg, Germany,Sep. 2004, pp. 378-385.

Y. Tanokura, "BMW to use long 50 m POF for internal LAN in new car model", Nikkei Electron., no. 811, p. 29, 2001.

M. Kagami, K. Hasegawa and H. Ito, "Simultaneous fabrication of optical channel waveguides and out-of-plane branching mirrors from a polymeric slab structure", Appl. Opt., vol. 36, no. 30, pp. 7700-7707, Oct. 1997.

J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Hida, S. Sasaki and T. Maruno, "Fluorinated polyimide waveguides with low polarization-dependent loss and their applications to thermooptic switches", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1024-1029, Jun. 1998.

K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, R. Yoshimura, S. Tomaru and S. Imamura, "Multimode polymeric optical waveguides with high thermal stability using UV cured epoxy resins", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1, Regul. Rap. Short Notes, vol. 37, no. 6B, pp. 3662-3664, Jun. 1998.

O. S. Rösch, W. Bernhard, T. M. Fiedler, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, R. Buestrich and M. Popall, "High performance low cost fabrication method for integrated polymer optical devices", in Proc. SPIE, Denver, CO, 1999, pp. 214-224.

J.-S. Kim, J.-W. Kang and J. J. Kim, "Simple and low cost fabrication of thermally stable polymeric multimode waveguides using a UV-curable epoxy", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1, Regul. Rap. Short Notes, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 1277-1279, Mar. 2003.

R. S. Fan and R. B. Hooker, "Tapered polymer single-mode waveguides for mode transformation", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 466-474, Mar. 1999.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, G. R. Möhlmann, M. C. Flipse and M. B. J. Diemeer, "Second harmonic generation in polymeric channel waveguides using modal dispersion", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, no. 21, pp. 2009-2010, Oct. 1996.

Y. Y. Maruo, S. Sasaki and T. Tamamura, "Channel-optical-waveguide fabrication based on electron-beam irradiation of polyimides", Appl. Opt., vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1047-1052, Feb. 1995.

M. Kagami, T. Yamashita and H. Ito, "Light-induced self-written three-dimensional optical waveguide", Appl. Opt., vol. 79, no. 8, pp. 1079-1081, 2001.

O. Sugihara, H. Tsuchie, H. Endo, N. Okamoto, T. Yamashita, M. Kagami and T. Kaino, "Light-induced self-written polymeric optical waveguides for single-mode propagation and for optical interconnections", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 804-806, Mar. 2004.

M. Kagami, M. Yonemura, A. Kawasaki and T. Yamashita, "Three-dimensional optical circuits using light-induced self-written waveguide technique", in Proc. Int. Conf. POF, Tokyo, Japan,Sep. 2002, pp. 29-31.

S. Lehmacher and A. Neyer, "Integration of polymer optical waveguides into printed circuit boards", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1052-1053, Jun. 1996.

T. Paatzsch, H.-D. Bauer, A. Gaudron, B. Jobst, S. Stadler, M. Popp, I. Smaglinski and W. Ehrfeld, "Polymer star couplers for optical backplane interconnects fabricated by LIGA technique", in Proc. Int. Conf. POF, Chiba, Japan,Jul. 1999, pp. 226-229.

P. M. Ferm and L. W. Shacklette, "High volume manufacturing of polymer planar waveguides via UV-embossing", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4106, San Diego, CA, 2000, pp. 1-10.

D. Fischer and E. Voges, "Multimode polymeric waveguide devices fabricated by two-component injection molding", Electron. Lett., vol. 33, no. 19, pp. 1626-1627, Sep. 1997.

T. Knoche, L. Müller, R. Klein and A. Neyer, "Low loss polymer waveguides at 1300 and 1550 nm using halogenated acrylates", Electron. Lett., vol. 32, no. 14, pp. 1284-1285, Jul. 1996.

H. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, T. Kaino, N. Okamoto and M. Hosino, "Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with large cores fabricated by hot embossing", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 23, pp. 2378-2380, Dec. 2003.

H. Mizuno, O. Sugihara, T. Kaino, N. Okamoto, M. Tomiki and M. Hosino, "Fabrication method of large core polymeric optical waveguide through replication process using anisotropically etched silicon", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 5351, San Jose, CA, 2004, pp. 268-275.

M. Kagami, H. Ito, T. Ichikawa, S. Kato, M. Matsuda and N. Takahashi, "Fabrication of large-core, high-\Delta optical waveguides in polymers", Appl. Opt., vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1041-1046, Feb. 1995.

M. Kagami and H. Ito, "Multimode power divider using radiation from tight bending waveguide", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 2028-2033, Nov. 1998.

C.-G. Choi, S.-P. Han, B. C. Kim, S.-H. Ahn and M.-Y. Jeong, "Fabrication of large-core 1 × 16 optical power splitters in polymers using hot-embossing process", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 825-827, Jun. 2003.

C.-W. Hsu, H.-L. Chen and W.-S. Wang, "Compact Y-branch power splitter based on simplified coherent coupling", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1103-1105, Aug. 2003.

A. Rogner, "Micromoulding of passive network components", in Proc. Int. Conf. POF, Paris, France,Jun. 1992, pp. 102-104.

A. Rogner and H. Pannhoff, "Characterization and qualification of moulded couplers for POF-networks", in Proc. Int. Conf. POF, Hague, The Netherlands,Jun. 1993, pp. 136-139.

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