Abstract

By introducing periodic thickness modulation of thin metal stripes embedded in a dielectric, compact and efficient Bragg gratings for long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) operating around 1550 nm are realized. Reflection and transmission spectra of the gratings having different lengths (from 20 to 160 µm), heights (tens of nanometers), and widths of the metal ridges forming the grating were measured, and the reflectivity of up to 60% and bandwidths ranging from 5 to 40 nm are demonstrated. By using a simple lossless-uniform-grating description, the effective refractive-index modulation in LR-SPP gratings is estimated to be of the order of 10<sup>-2</sup>, and two different approaches for these calculations are compared. The LR-SPP loss incurred in the investigated gratings is also discussed.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons, Berlin: Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1988.
  2. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics", Nature, vol. 424, no. 6950, pp. 824-830, Aug. 2003.
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  7. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov and K. Leosson, "Localization and waveguiding of surface plasmon polaritons in random nanostructures", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 89, no. 18, pp. 186801-186804, Oct. 2002.
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  21. T. E. Murphy, "Design, fabrication and measurement of integrated Bragg grating optical filters", Ph.D. thesis, Dept. Elect. Eng. Comput. Sci., Massachusetts Inst. Technol., Cambridge, 2001.

Other

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons, Berlin: Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1988.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics", Nature, vol. 424, no. 6950, pp. 824-830, Aug. 2003.

I. I. Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni and C. C. Davis, "Imaging of surface plasmon scattering by lithographically created individual surface defects", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 77, no. 18, pp. 3877-3880, Oct. 1996.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and F. A. Pudonin, "Two-dimensional micro-optics of surface plasmons", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 78, no. 14, pp. 2823-2826, Apr. 1997.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner and F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 81, no. 10, pp. 1762-1764, Sep. 2002.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard and J. M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 86, no. 14, pp. 3008-3011, Apr. 2001.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov and K. Leosson, "Localization and waveguiding of surface plasmon polaritons in random nanostructures", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 89, no. 18, pp. 186801-186804, Oct. 2002.

D. Sarid, "Long-range surface-plasma waves on very thin metal films", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 47, no. 26, pp. 1927-1930, Dec. 1981.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman and T. Tamir, "Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films", Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 5186-5201, Apr. 1986.

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures", Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter, vol. 61, no. 15, pp. 10484-10503, Apr. 2000.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 668-670, Feb. 2003.

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 413-422, Jan. 2005.

R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi and P. Berini, "Demonstration of integrated optics elements based on long-ranging surface plasmon polaritons", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 977-984, Feb. 2005.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "In-line extinction modulator based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons", Opt. Commun., vol. 244, no. 1-6, pp. 455-459, Jan. 2005.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, no. 24, pp. 5833-5835, Dec. 2004.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Boltasseva, T. Søndergaard, T. Nikolajsen and K. Leosson, "Photonic band gap structures for long-range surface plasmon polaritons", Opt. Commun., vol. 250, no. 4-6, pp. 328-333, Jun. 2005.

S. Jetté-Charbonneau, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi and P. Berini, "Demonstration of Bragg gratings based on long-ranging surface plasmon polariton waveguides", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 4674-4682, Jun. 2005.

"CYCLOTENE Advanced Electronics Resins: Refractive Index vs. Wavelength (Dow Chemical Company)",

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals, New York: Wiley, 1984.

L. A. Coldren and C. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1995.

T. E. Murphy, "Design, fabrication and measurement of integrated Bragg grating optical filters", Ph.D. thesis, Dept. Elect. Eng. Comput. Sci., Massachusetts Inst. Technol., Cambridge, 2001.

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