Abstract

A new high-port-count wavelength-selective switch (WSS) has been realized using two cross-scanning one-axis analog micromirror arrays in a 4-f optical system. The number of output ports is increased from N to N<sup>2</sup>, where N is the maximum linear port count limited by optical diffraction. Using surface-micromachined micromirrors with hidden vertical comb drives, large scan angles (> ± 5 ° mechanical), low drive voltages (7 V), and high fill factors (> 96.25%) are achieved for both scanning mirrors. Experimental results for WSS are demonstrated using both two-dimensional (2-D) array of discrete collimators and monolithic 2-D collimator array. A fiber-to-fiber insertion loss ranging from 6 to 18 dB and a switching time of < 700 µs have been achieved.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. L. Y. Lin, E. L. Goldstein and R. W. Tkach, "Free-space micromachined optical switches for optical networking", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.: Special Issue on Microoptoelectro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS), vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 4-9, Jan./Feb. 1999.
  2. A. Husain, "MEMS-based photonic switching in communications networks", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. WX1-1-WX1-3.
  3. R. Ryf, et al. "1296-port MEMS transparent optical crossconnect with 2.07 Petabit/s switch capacity", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. PD28-1-PD28-3.
  4. J. S. Patel and Y. Silberberg, "Liquid crystal and grating-based multiple-wavelength cross-connect switch", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 514-516, May 1995.
  5. J. E. Ford, V. A. Aksyuk, D. J. Bishop and J. A. Walker, "Wavelength add-drop switching using tilting micromirrors", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 904-911, May 1999.
  6. D. Hah, S. Huang, H. Nguyen, H. Chang, H. Toshiyoshi and M. C. Wu, "A low voltage, large scan angle MEMS micromirror array with hidden vertical comb-drive actuators for WDM routers", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2002,Paper TuO3,. pp. 92-93.
  7. D. M. Marom, et al. "Wavelength-selective 1 × 4 switch for 128 WDM channels at 50 GHz spacing", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. FB7-1-FB7-3.
  8. D. Hah, S. Huang, H. Nguyen, H. Chang, J. C. Tsai and M. C. Wu, "Low voltage MEMS analog micromirror arrays with hidden vertical comb-drive actuators", in Proc. Solid-State Sensor, Actuator and Microsystems Workshop, Hilton Head Island, SC, Jun. 2002, pp. 11-14.
  9. S. Huang, J. C. Tsai, D. Hah, H. Toshiyoshi and M. C. Wu, "Open-loop operation of MEMS WDM routers with analog micromirror array", in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Optical MEMS Conf., Lugano, Switzerland, 2002, pp. 179-180.
  10. T. Ducellier, et al. "The MWS 1 × 4: A high performance wavelength switching building block", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002.
  11. D. M. Marom, et al. "Wavelength selective 4 × 1 switch with high spectral efficiency, 10 dB dynamic equalization range and internal blocking capability", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Rimini, Italy, 2003,Paper Mo3.5.3.
  12. D. M. Marom, et al. "64 channel 4 × 4 wavelength-selective cross-connect for 40 Gb/s channel rates with 10 Tb/s throughput capacity", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Rimini, Italy, 2003,Paper We4.P.130.
  13. D. Hah, S. T. Y. Huang, J. C. Tsai, H. Toshiyoshi and M. C. Wu, "Low-voltage, large-scan angle MEMS analog micromirror arrays with hidden vertical comb-drive actuators", IEEE J. Microelectromech. Syst., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 279-289, Apr. 2004.
  14. J. C. Tsai, S. Huang, D. Hah, H. Toshiyoshi and M. C. Wu, "Open-loop operation of MEMS-based 1 × N wavelength-selective switch with long-term stability and repeatability", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 1041-1043, Apr. 2004.
  15. J. C. Tsai, S. Huang, D. Hah and M. C. Wu, "Wavelength-selective 1 × N2 switches with two-dimensional input/output fiber arrays", in Proc. Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Baltimore, MD, 2003,Paper CTuQ4.
  16. J. C. Tsai, S. Huang, D. Hah and M. C. Wu, "Analog micromirror arrays with orthogonal scanning directions for wavelength-selective 1 × N2 switches", in Proc. Transducers, Boston, MA, 2003, pp. 1776-1779.
  17. J. C. Tsai, S. Huang, D. Hah and M. C. Wu, "1 × N2 wavelength-selective switch with telescope-magnified 2D input/output fiber collimator array", in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Optical MEMS Conf, Waikoloa, HI, 2003, pp. 45-46.
  18. D. M. Marom and S. H. Oh, "Filter-shape dependence on atten-uation mechanism in channelized dynamic spectral equalizers", in Proc. Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), Glasgow, Scotland, 2002, pp. 416-417.
  19. S. H. Oh and D. M. Marom, "Attenuation mechanism effect on filter shape in channelized dynamic spectral equalizers", Appl. Opt., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 127-131, Jan. 2004.

  20. D. M. Marom, et al. "Effect of mirror curvature in MEMS micro-mirror based wavelength-selective switches", in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Annu. Meeting, Tucson, AZ, 2003,Paper TuO4,. pp. 305-306.

Other

L. Y. Lin, E. L. Goldstein and R. W. Tkach, "Free-space micromachined optical switches for optical networking", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.: Special Issue on Microoptoelectro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS), vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 4-9, Jan./Feb. 1999.

A. Husain, "MEMS-based photonic switching in communications networks", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. WX1-1-WX1-3.

R. Ryf, et al. "1296-port MEMS transparent optical crossconnect with 2.07 Petabit/s switch capacity", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2001, pp. PD28-1-PD28-3.

J. S. Patel and Y. Silberberg, "Liquid crystal and grating-based multiple-wavelength cross-connect switch", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 514-516, May 1995.

J. E. Ford, V. A. Aksyuk, D. J. Bishop and J. A. Walker, "Wavelength add-drop switching using tilting micromirrors", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 904-911, May 1999.

D. Hah, S. Huang, H. Nguyen, H. Chang, H. Toshiyoshi and M. C. Wu, "A low voltage, large scan angle MEMS micromirror array with hidden vertical comb-drive actuators for WDM routers", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2002,Paper TuO3,. pp. 92-93.

D. M. Marom, et al. "Wavelength-selective 1 × 4 switch for 128 WDM channels at 50 GHz spacing", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2002, pp. FB7-1-FB7-3.

D. Hah, S. Huang, H. Nguyen, H. Chang, J. C. Tsai and M. C. Wu, "Low voltage MEMS analog micromirror arrays with hidden vertical comb-drive actuators", in Proc. Solid-State Sensor, Actuator and Microsystems Workshop, Hilton Head Island, SC, Jun. 2002, pp. 11-14.

S. Huang, J. C. Tsai, D. Hah, H. Toshiyoshi and M. C. Wu, "Open-loop operation of MEMS WDM routers with analog micromirror array", in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Optical MEMS Conf., Lugano, Switzerland, 2002, pp. 179-180.

T. Ducellier, et al. "The MWS 1 × 4: A high performance wavelength switching building block", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002.

D. M. Marom, et al. "Wavelength selective 4 × 1 switch with high spectral efficiency, 10 dB dynamic equalization range and internal blocking capability", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Rimini, Italy, 2003,Paper Mo3.5.3.

D. M. Marom, et al. "64 channel 4 × 4 wavelength-selective cross-connect for 40 Gb/s channel rates with 10 Tb/s throughput capacity", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Rimini, Italy, 2003,Paper We4.P.130.

D. Hah, S. T. Y. Huang, J. C. Tsai, H. Toshiyoshi and M. C. Wu, "Low-voltage, large-scan angle MEMS analog micromirror arrays with hidden vertical comb-drive actuators", IEEE J. Microelectromech. Syst., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 279-289, Apr. 2004.

J. C. Tsai, S. Huang, D. Hah, H. Toshiyoshi and M. C. Wu, "Open-loop operation of MEMS-based 1 × N wavelength-selective switch with long-term stability and repeatability", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 1041-1043, Apr. 2004.

J. C. Tsai, S. Huang, D. Hah and M. C. Wu, "Wavelength-selective 1 × N2 switches with two-dimensional input/output fiber arrays", in Proc. Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Baltimore, MD, 2003,Paper CTuQ4.

J. C. Tsai, S. Huang, D. Hah and M. C. Wu, "Analog micromirror arrays with orthogonal scanning directions for wavelength-selective 1 × N2 switches", in Proc. Transducers, Boston, MA, 2003, pp. 1776-1779.

J. C. Tsai, S. Huang, D. Hah and M. C. Wu, "1 × N2 wavelength-selective switch with telescope-magnified 2D input/output fiber collimator array", in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Optical MEMS Conf, Waikoloa, HI, 2003, pp. 45-46.

D. M. Marom and S. H. Oh, "Filter-shape dependence on atten-uation mechanism in channelized dynamic spectral equalizers", in Proc. Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), Glasgow, Scotland, 2002, pp. 416-417.

S. H. Oh and D. M. Marom, "Attenuation mechanism effect on filter shape in channelized dynamic spectral equalizers", Appl. Opt., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 127-131, Jan. 2004.


D. M. Marom, et al. "Effect of mirror curvature in MEMS micro-mirror based wavelength-selective switches", in Proc. IEEE/LEOS Annu. Meeting, Tucson, AZ, 2003,Paper TuO4,. pp. 305-306.

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