Abstract

Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) optical waveguides insure high electromagnetic field confinement but suffer both from sidewall roughness responsible of scattering effects and from leakage toward the silicon substrate. These two mechanisms are the main sources of loss in such optical waveguides. Considering the case of single-mode ultrasmall square SOI waveguides, propagation loss is calculated at telecommunication wavelengths taking into account these two loss contributions. Leakage toward the substrate and scattering effects strongly depend on the waveguide size as well as on the operating wavelength.

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  1. A. Layadi, A. Vonsovici, R. Orobtchouk, D. Pascal, A. Koster, Y. Tohmori, Y. Itaya and H. Toba, "Low-loss optical waveguide on standard SOI/SIMOX substrate", Opt. Commun., vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 31-33, Jan. 1998.
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  4. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1328-1330, May 2004.
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  7. L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster and E. Cassan, "Polarization-independent single-mode rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator for telecommunications wavelength", Opt. Commun., vol. 210, no. 1-2, pp. 43-49, Sep. 2002.
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  17. A. S. Sudbo, "Numerically stable formulation of the transverse resonance method for vector mode-field calculations in dielectric waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 342-344, Mar. 1993.
  18. T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, E. Tamechika, T. Shoji, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, S. Itabashi and H. Morita, "Fabrication and evaluation of submicron-square Si wire waveguides with spot-size converters", in Proc. Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) Annu. Meeting, Glasgow, U.K., 2002,Paper TuU2,. p. 287.

Other (18)

A. Layadi, A. Vonsovici, R. Orobtchouk, D. Pascal, A. Koster, Y. Tohmori, Y. Itaya and H. Toba, "Low-loss optical waveguide on standard SOI/SIMOX substrate", Opt. Commun., vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 31-33, Jan. 1998.

J. Schmidten, A. Splett, B. Schuppert and K. Petermann, "Low loss single-mode optical waveguides with large cross-section in SOI", Electron. Lett., vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 1486-1488, Aug. 1991.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin and F. Cerrina, "Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 23, pp. 1888-1890, Dec. 2001.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout and R. Baets, "Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1328-1330, May 2004.

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on insulator strip waveguides and bends", Opt. Express, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1622-1631, Apr. 2004.

S. Lardenois, D. Pascal, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, S. Laval, R. Orobtchouk, M. Heitzmann, N. Bouzaida and L. Mollard, "Low-loss submicrometer silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides and corner mirrors", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 13, pp. 1-3, Jul. 2003.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, B. Dumont, S. Lardenois, A. Koster and E. Cassan, "Polarization-independent single-mode rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator for telecommunications wavelength", Opt. Commun., vol. 210, no. 1-2, pp. 43-49, Sep. 2002.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, "A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguide", Proc. IEEE-Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 977-986, Oct. 1994.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 77, no. 11, pp. 1617-1619, Sep. 2000.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal and E. Cassan, "Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1661-1663, Jul. 2004.

L. Vivien, S. Laval, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux and D. Pascal, "2-D taper for low-loss coupling between polarization-insensitive microwaveguides and single-mode optical fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 2429-2433, Oct. 2003.

W. Boagarts, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Scattering at sidewall roughness in photonic crystal slabs", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 689-691, May 2003.

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love and T. J. Senden, "Effect of side wall roughness in buried channel waveguides", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.-Optoelectron., vol. 141, no. 4, pp. 242-248, Aug. 1994.

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love and T. J. Senden, "Measurement of surface roughness in buried channel waveguides", Electron. Lett., vol. 28, no. 14, pp. 1321-1322, Jul. 1992.

F. Ladouceur, "Roughness, inhomogeneity and integrated optics", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1020-1025, Jun. 1997.

"FIMMWAVE Software, Photon Design",

A. S. Sudbo, "Numerically stable formulation of the transverse resonance method for vector mode-field calculations in dielectric waveguides", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 342-344, Mar. 1993.

T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, E. Tamechika, T. Shoji, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, S. Itabashi and H. Morita, "Fabrication and evaluation of submicron-square Si wire waveguides with spot-size converters", in Proc. Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) Annu. Meeting, Glasgow, U.K., 2002,Paper TuU2,. p. 287.

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