Abstract

A novel and simple sensor based on a 3° slanted multimode fiber Bragg grating (MFBG) for simultaneous temperature and refractive index measurement is demonstrated. The 3° slanted MFBG shows two wavelength groups in its transmission spectrum: One group, due to the coupling from one core mode to cladding modes, is sensitive to both surrounding refractive index (SRI) and temperature and the other, due to the coupling from one core mode to other core modes is sensitive only to temperature. Utilizing the obvious difference of two transmission dips in different wavelength groups on the temperature and the refractive index, two parameters can be distinguished and measured simultaneously using one slanted MFBG.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. H. J. Patric, A. D. Kersey and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1606-1612, Sep. 1998.
  2. M. N. Ng, Z. Chen and K. S. Chiang, "Temperature compensation of long-period fiber grating for refractive-index sensing with bending effect", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 361-362, Mar. 2002.
  3. B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fiber", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 14, pp. 695-696, Jul. 2002.
  4. X. Shu, B. A. L. Gwandu, Y. Liu, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Sampled fiber Bragg grating for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 774-776, Jun. 2001.
  5. Y.-G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek and Y. Chung, "Fiber-optic sensing applications of a pair of long-period fiber gratings", Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 778-781, Jul. 2001.
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  7. G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fiber-Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry", Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 765-770, Jul. 2001.
  8. X. Yang, C. Zhao, J. Zhou, X. Guo, J. Ng, X. Zhou and C. Lu, "The characteristics of fiber slanted gratings in multimode fiber", Opt. Commun., vol. 229, no. 1-6, pp. 161-165, Jan. 2004.
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  11. D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics, 2nd ed. New York: Van Nostrand, 1982.
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  13. Y. Liu, B. M. A. Rahman, Y. N. Ning and K. T. V. Grattan, "Accurate mode characterization of graded-index multimode fibers for application on mode-noise analysis", Appl. Opt., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1540-1543, Mar. 1995.
  14. T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short-and long-period fiber grating filters", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1760-1773, Aug. 1997.
  15. C. Tsao, Optical Fiber Waveguide Analysis, New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1992.

Other

H. J. Patric, A. D. Kersey and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1606-1612, Sep. 1998.

M. N. Ng, Z. Chen and K. S. Chiang, "Temperature compensation of long-period fiber grating for refractive-index sensing with bending effect", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 361-362, Mar. 2002.

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using cascaded long-period grating in double-cladding fiber", Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 14, pp. 695-696, Jul. 2002.

X. Shu, B. A. L. Gwandu, Y. Liu, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Sampled fiber Bragg grating for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 774-776, Jun. 2001.

Y.-G. Han, B. H. Lee, W.-T. Han, U.-C. Paek and Y. Chung, "Fiber-optic sensing applications of a pair of long-period fiber gratings", Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 778-781, Jul. 2001.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch and A. Andreev, "A fiber Bragg grating refractometer", Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 757-764, Jul. 2001.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fiber-Bragg-grating induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry", Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 765-770, Jul. 2001.

X. Yang, C. Zhao, J. Zhou, X. Guo, J. Ng, X. Zhou and C. Lu, "The characteristics of fiber slanted gratings in multimode fiber", Opt. Commun., vol. 229, no. 1-6, pp. 161-165, Jan. 2004.

T. Mizunami, T. V. Djambova, T. Niiho and S. Gupta, "Bragg gratings in multimode and few-mode optical fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 230-235, Feb. 2000.

K. Kitayama, S. Seikai and N. Uchida, "Impulse response prediction based on experimental mode coupling coefficient in a 10-km long graded-index fiber", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-16, no. 3, pp. 356-362, Mar. 1980.

D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics, 2nd ed. New York: Van Nostrand, 1982.

J. H. Povlsen, P. Danielsen and G. Jacobsen, "Modal propagation constants, group delays and eigenfields for practical multimode graded-index fibers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 72, no. 11, pp. 1506-1513, Nov. 1982.

Y. Liu, B. M. A. Rahman, Y. N. Ning and K. T. V. Grattan, "Accurate mode characterization of graded-index multimode fibers for application on mode-noise analysis", Appl. Opt., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1540-1543, Mar. 1995.

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short-and long-period fiber grating filters", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1760-1773, Aug. 1997.

C. Tsao, Optical Fiber Waveguide Analysis, New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1992.

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