Abstract

The fabrication and characterization of long-period gratings (LPGs) in fiber tapers is presented alongside supporting theory. The devices possess a high sensitivity to the index of aqueous solutions due to an observed spectral bifurcation effect, yielding a limiting index resolution of ±8.5 × 10<sup>-5</sup> for solutions with an index in the range 1.330-1.335.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. S. Vasilev, et al. "Long-period refractive index fibre gratings: Properties, applications and fabrication techniques", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4083, Moscow, Russia, 2000, pp. 212-223.
  2. T. Allsop, et al. "A comparison and characteristics of sensing parameters of long period gratings written in three different types of fibre", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 210-223, Oct. 2003.
  3. A. Snyder, "Coupling of modes on a tapered dielectric cylinder", IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. MTT-18, no. 7, pp. 383-392, Jul. 1970.
  4. S. Rabbany, et al. "Optical immunosensor", Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng., vol. 22, no. 5/6, pp. 307-346, 1994.
  5. F. L. Arregui, et al. "Optical fibre strain gauge based a tapered single-mode fibre", Sens. Actuators A, Phys., vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 90-96, Feb. 2000.
  6. H. J. Patrick, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1606-1612, Sep. 1998.
  7. T. Allsop, et al. "Detection of organic aromatic compounds in paraffin by a long period fibre grating optical sensor with optimised sensitivity", Opt. Commun., vol. 191, no. 3-6, pp. 181-190, May 2001.
  8. T. Allsop, et al. "Refractive index sensing with a long period grating fabricated in a biconical tapered fibre", Electron. Lett., vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 471-472, Apr. 2005.
  9. J.-F. Ding, et al. "Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1247-1249, Jun. 2005.
  10. A. W. Synder, Optical Waveguide Theory, London: U.K.: Chapman and Hall, 1991.
  11. R. J. Black, et al. "Core-mode cutoff for finite-cladding lightguides", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. J-133, no. 6, pp. 377-384, 1986.
  12. J. D. Love, et al. "Tapered single-mode fibres and devices-Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. J, vol. 133, no. 6, pp. 377-384, 1986.
  13. T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short-and long-period fibre grating filters", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1760-1773, Aug. 1997.
  14. C. Tsao, Optical Fibre Waveguide Analysis, New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1992.
  15. Y. Takeuchi, et al. "Novel fiber coupler tapering process using a microheater", IEEE Photon Technol. Lett., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 465-467, May 1992.
  16. R. P. Kenny, et al. "Control of optical fibre taper shape", Electron. Lett., vol. 27, no. 18, pp. 1654-1656, Aug. 1991.
  17. D. Marcuse, "Mode conversion in optical fibres with monotonically increasing core radius", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 1, pp. 125-133, Jan. 1987.
  18. M. Miyagi, et al. "An approximate formula for describing dispersion properties of optical dielectric slab and fibre waveguides", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 291-293, 1979.
  19. T. Allsop, et al. "High sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer", Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 1702-1705, Apr. 2002.
  20. K. Schroeder, et al. "A fibre Bragg grating refractometer", Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 757-764, 2001.

Other

S. Vasilev, et al. "Long-period refractive index fibre gratings: Properties, applications and fabrication techniques", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 4083, Moscow, Russia, 2000, pp. 212-223.

T. Allsop, et al. "A comparison and characteristics of sensing parameters of long period gratings written in three different types of fibre", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 210-223, Oct. 2003.

A. Snyder, "Coupling of modes on a tapered dielectric cylinder", IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. MTT-18, no. 7, pp. 383-392, Jul. 1970.

S. Rabbany, et al. "Optical immunosensor", Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng., vol. 22, no. 5/6, pp. 307-346, 1994.

F. L. Arregui, et al. "Optical fibre strain gauge based a tapered single-mode fibre", Sens. Actuators A, Phys., vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 90-96, Feb. 2000.

H. J. Patrick, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1606-1612, Sep. 1998.

T. Allsop, et al. "Detection of organic aromatic compounds in paraffin by a long period fibre grating optical sensor with optimised sensitivity", Opt. Commun., vol. 191, no. 3-6, pp. 181-190, May 2001.

T. Allsop, et al. "Refractive index sensing with a long period grating fabricated in a biconical tapered fibre", Electron. Lett., vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 471-472, Apr. 2005.

J.-F. Ding, et al. "Fiber-taper seeded long-period grating pair as a highly sensitive refractive-index sensor", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1247-1249, Jun. 2005.

A. W. Synder, Optical Waveguide Theory, London: U.K.: Chapman and Hall, 1991.

R. J. Black, et al. "Core-mode cutoff for finite-cladding lightguides", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. J-133, no. 6, pp. 377-384, 1986.

J. D. Love, et al. "Tapered single-mode fibres and devices-Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. J, vol. 133, no. 6, pp. 377-384, 1986.

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short-and long-period fibre grating filters", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1760-1773, Aug. 1997.

C. Tsao, Optical Fibre Waveguide Analysis, New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1992.

Y. Takeuchi, et al. "Novel fiber coupler tapering process using a microheater", IEEE Photon Technol. Lett., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 465-467, May 1992.

R. P. Kenny, et al. "Control of optical fibre taper shape", Electron. Lett., vol. 27, no. 18, pp. 1654-1656, Aug. 1991.

D. Marcuse, "Mode conversion in optical fibres with monotonically increasing core radius", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 1, pp. 125-133, Jan. 1987.

M. Miyagi, et al. "An approximate formula for describing dispersion properties of optical dielectric slab and fibre waveguides", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 291-293, 1979.

T. Allsop, et al. "High sensitivity refractometer based upon a long period grating Mach-Zehnder interferometer", Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 1702-1705, Apr. 2002.

K. Schroeder, et al. "A fibre Bragg grating refractometer", Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 757-764, 2001.

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