Abstract

In drawing microstructured optical fibers (MOFs), the cross-sectional hole structure, including holes' relative size and shape, in a finished fiber drawn down from a preform can be different from that designed in the preform due to combined effects of draw tension and surface tension. As a result, the fiber's optical properties relative to the initial design can be significantly altered. In order to find means of minimizing or exploiting hole deformation so that MOFs with desirable optical functionality can be fabricated, the underlying mechanism of hole deformation is analyzed by numerically investigating the continuous draw process of MOFs of different materials under different drawing conditions. It is found that three dimensionless numbers, i.e., 1) the capillary number (related to material properties), 2) the draw ratio, and 3) the aspect ratio (both related to the drawing conditions), can be used to predict the type of hole deformation. Silica and polymer materials are considered in particular, but the use of these dimensionless numbers allows the analysis to be applied to any other material.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. P. F. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibre", Science, vol. 299, no. 5605, pp. 358-362, Jan. 2003.
  2. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Russsell and D. M. Atkins, "All silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 19, pp. 1547-1549, Oct. 1996.
  3. M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, A. Argyros, J. Zagari, S. Manos, N. A. Issa, I. Bassett, S. Fleming, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke and N. A. P. Nicorovici, "Microstructured polymer optical fibre", Opt. Express, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 319-327, Sep. 2001.
  4. S. C. Xue, R. I. Tanner, G. W. Barton, R. Lwin, M. C. J. Large and L. Poladian, "Fabrication of microstructured optical fibres-Part I: Problem formulation and numerical modelling of transient draw process", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 2245-2254, Jul. 2005.
  5. S. C. Xue, R. I. Tanner, G. W. Barton, R. Lwin, M. C. J. Large and L. Poladian, "Fabrication of microstructured optical fibres-Part II: Numerical modelling of steady-state draw process", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 2255-2266, Jul. 2005.
  6. T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, L. C. Botten and M. J. Steel, "Confinement losses in microstructured optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 21, pp. 1660-1662, Nov. 2001.
  7. B. T. Kuhlmey, R. C. McPhedran and C. M. de Sterke, "Modal cutoff in microstructured optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 19, pp. 1684-1686, Oct. 2002.
  8. N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. Fellew and M. C. J. Large, "Fabrication and characterization of microstructured optical fibres with elliptical holes", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1336-1338, Jun. 2004.
  9. N. A. Issa, "High numerical aperture in multimode microstructured optical fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 43, no. 33, pp. 6191-6197, Nov. 2004.
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  11. S. C. Xue, G. Barton, M. C. J. Large, R. Lwin, L. Poladian and R. I. Tanner, "Analysis of hole deformation in drawing microstructured optical fibres", in Proc. 13th Int. Plastic Fibres Conf., Nürnberg, Germany,Sep. 2004, pp. 269-276.
  12. M. R. Matovich and J. R. A. Pearson, "Spinning a molten threadline-Steady-state isothermal viscous flows", Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 512-520, Aug. 1969.
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  18. A. Yarin, P. Gospodinov and V. I. Rusinov, "Stability loss and sensitivity in hollow fibre drawing", Phys. Fluids, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1454-1463, Apr. 1994.
  19. N. P. Bansal and R. H. Doremus, Handbooks of Glass Properties, New York: Academic, 1986, p. 680.
  20. R. I. Tanner, Engineering Rheology, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2000, pp. 340-356.
  21. K. Lyytikäinen, P. Råback and J. Ruokolainen, "Numerical simulation of a specialty optical fibre drawing process", in Proc. 4th Int. ASME/JSME/KSME Symp. Computational Technologies Fluid/ Thermal/ Chemical/ Stress Systems Industrial Applications, vol. PVP448-2, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2002, pp. 267-275.
  22. F. Cox, A. Michie, G. Henry, M. Large, S. Ponrathnam and A. Argyros, "Poling and doping of microstructured polymer optical fibres", in Proc. 12th Int. Plastic Optical Fibers Conf., Seattle, WA, Sept. 14-17 2003, pp. 89-92.

Other

P. F. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibre", Science, vol. 299, no. 5605, pp. 358-362, Jan. 2003.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Russsell and D. M. Atkins, "All silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 19, pp. 1547-1549, Oct. 1996.

M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. C. J. Large, A. Argyros, J. Zagari, S. Manos, N. A. Issa, I. Bassett, S. Fleming, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke and N. A. P. Nicorovici, "Microstructured polymer optical fibre", Opt. Express, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 319-327, Sep. 2001.

S. C. Xue, R. I. Tanner, G. W. Barton, R. Lwin, M. C. J. Large and L. Poladian, "Fabrication of microstructured optical fibres-Part I: Problem formulation and numerical modelling of transient draw process", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 2245-2254, Jul. 2005.

S. C. Xue, R. I. Tanner, G. W. Barton, R. Lwin, M. C. J. Large and L. Poladian, "Fabrication of microstructured optical fibres-Part II: Numerical modelling of steady-state draw process", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 2255-2266, Jul. 2005.

T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, L. C. Botten and M. J. Steel, "Confinement losses in microstructured optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 21, pp. 1660-1662, Nov. 2001.

B. T. Kuhlmey, R. C. McPhedran and C. M. de Sterke, "Modal cutoff in microstructured optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 19, pp. 1684-1686, Oct. 2002.

N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. Fellew and M. C. J. Large, "Fabrication and characterization of microstructured optical fibres with elliptical holes", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1336-1338, Jun. 2004.

N. A. Issa, "High numerical aperture in multimode microstructured optical fibers", Appl. Opt., vol. 43, no. 33, pp. 6191-6197, Nov. 2004.

A. D. F. Fitt, K. Furusawa, T. M. Monro, C. P. Please and D. J. Richardson, "The mathematical modeling of capillary for holey fibre manufacture", J. Eng. Math., vol. 43, no. 2-4, pp. 210-227, May 2002.

S. C. Xue, G. Barton, M. C. J. Large, R. Lwin, L. Poladian and R. I. Tanner, "Analysis of hole deformation in drawing microstructured optical fibres", in Proc. 13th Int. Plastic Fibres Conf., Nürnberg, Germany,Sep. 2004, pp. 269-276.

M. R. Matovich and J. R. A. Pearson, "Spinning a molten threadline-Steady-state isothermal viscous flows", Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 512-520, Aug. 1969.

W. W. Schultz and S. H. Davis, "One-dimensional liquid fibers", J. Rheol., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 331-345, Aug. 1982.

G. Deflandre, "Modeling the manufacturing of complex optical fibres: The case of the holey fibres", in Proc. 2nd Int. Colloq., Valenciennes, France,Jan. 2002, pp. 150-156.

G. Barton, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, G. Henry, M. C. J. Large and J. Zagari, "Fabrication of microstrucured polymer optical fibres", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 325-335, May 2004.

"POLYFLOW User's Manual, ver. 3.10", Fluent Inc., Lebanon, NH, Sep. 2003.

A. Ziabicki, Fundamentals of Fibre Formation, London: U.K.: Wiley, 1976.

A. Yarin, P. Gospodinov and V. I. Rusinov, "Stability loss and sensitivity in hollow fibre drawing", Phys. Fluids, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1454-1463, Apr. 1994.

N. P. Bansal and R. H. Doremus, Handbooks of Glass Properties, New York: Academic, 1986, p. 680.

R. I. Tanner, Engineering Rheology, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2000, pp. 340-356.

K. Lyytikäinen, P. Råback and J. Ruokolainen, "Numerical simulation of a specialty optical fibre drawing process", in Proc. 4th Int. ASME/JSME/KSME Symp. Computational Technologies Fluid/ Thermal/ Chemical/ Stress Systems Industrial Applications, vol. PVP448-2, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2002, pp. 267-275.

F. Cox, A. Michie, G. Henry, M. Large, S. Ponrathnam and A. Argyros, "Poling and doping of microstructured polymer optical fibres", in Proc. 12th Int. Plastic Optical Fibers Conf., Seattle, WA, Sept. 14-17 2003, pp. 89-92.

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