Abstract

The acoustic and acoustooptic properties of a weakly multimode solid core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) are studied. The phase velocity of the lowest order flexural acoustic mode is measured as a function of frequency and compared with the results for a hollow core PCF and a standard optical fiber. Acoustooptic interaction is used to couple light from the lowest order to the first higher order optical modes of the solid core PCF. The experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions.

© 2006 IEEE

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  2. P. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers", Science, vol. 299, no. 5605, pp. 358-362, Jan. 2003.
  3. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. S. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 13, pp. 961-963, Jul. 1997.
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  6. H. S. Kim, S. H. Yun, H. K. Kim, N. Park and B. Y. Kim, "Actively gain-flattened erbium-doped fiber amplifier over 35 nm by using all-fiber acoustooptic tunable filters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 790-792, Jun. 1998.
  7. A. Diez, T. A. Birks, W. H. Reeves, B. J. Mangan and P. S. J. Russell, "Excitation of cladding modes in photonic crystal fibers by flexural acoustic waves", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 20, pp. 1499-1501, Oct. 2000.
  8. M. D. Nielsen, G. Vienne, J. R. Folkenberg and A. Bjarklev, "Investigation of microdeformation-induced attenuation spectra in a photonic crystal fiber", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 236-238, Feb. 2003.
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  14. B. T. Kuhlmey, R. C. McPhedran and C. M. de Sterke, "Modal cutoff in microstructured optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 19, pp. 1684-1686, Oct. 2002.
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  20. T. E. Dimmick, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, A. Diez and P. S. J. Russell, "Compact all-fiber acoustooptic tunable filters with small bandwidth-length product", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1210-1212, Sep. 2000.
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  23. D. Östling and H. E. Engan, "Narrow-band acousto-optic tunable filtering in a two-mode fiber", Opt. Lett., vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1247-1249, Jun. 1995.
  24. M. D. Nielsen, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibers", Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Commun. Opt. Mater., Tech. Univ. Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark, May 2004.
  25. B. Langli, D. Östling and K. Bløtekjær, "Axial variations in the acoustooptic phase-mismatch coefficient of two-mode fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2443-2449, Dec. 1998.
  26. N. A. Mortensen, M. D. Nielsen, J. R. Folkenberg, K. P. Hansen and J. Lægsgaard, "Small-core photonic crystal fibres with weakly disordered air-hole claddings", J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 221-223, Feb. 2004.
  27. I.-K. Hwang, Y.-J. Lee and Y.-H. Lee, "Birefringence induced by irregular structure in photonic crystal fiber", Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 22, pp. 2799-2806, Nov. 2003.

Other (27)

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou and A. Bjarklev, "Photonic crystal fibers: A new class of optical waveguides", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 305-330, Jul. 1999.

P. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers", Science, vol. 299, no. 5605, pp. 358-362, Jan. 2003.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. S. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber", Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 13, pp. 961-963, Jul. 1997.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air", Science, vol. 285, no. 5433, pp. 1537-1539, Sep. 1999.

B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, H. E. Engan and H. J. Shaw, "All-fiber acousto-optic frequency shifter", Opt. Lett., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 389-391, Jun. 1986.

H. S. Kim, S. H. Yun, H. K. Kim, N. Park and B. Y. Kim, "Actively gain-flattened erbium-doped fiber amplifier over 35 nm by using all-fiber acoustooptic tunable filters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 790-792, Jun. 1998.

A. Diez, T. A. Birks, W. H. Reeves, B. J. Mangan and P. S. J. Russell, "Excitation of cladding modes in photonic crystal fibers by flexural acoustic waves", Opt. Lett., vol. 25, no. 20, pp. 1499-1501, Oct. 2000.

M. D. Nielsen, G. Vienne, J. R. Folkenberg and A. Bjarklev, "Investigation of microdeformation-induced attenuation spectra in a photonic crystal fiber", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 236-238, Feb. 2003.

H. E. Engan, B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake and H. J. Shaw, "Propagation and optical interaction of guided acoustic waves in two-mode optical fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 428-436, Mar. 1988.

K. F. Graff, Wave Motion in Elastic Solids, Oxford: U.K.: Clarendon, 1975.

B. Langli and K. Bløtekjær, "Effect of acoustic birefringence on acoustooptic interaction in birefringent two-mode optical fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 528-535, Feb. 2003.

D. Royer and E. Dieulesaint, Elastic Waves in Solids I, Berlin: Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2000.

M. Koshiba and K. Saitoh, "Applicability of classical optical fiber theories to holey fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 1739-1741, Aug. 2004.

B. T. Kuhlmey, R. C. McPhedran and C. M. de Sterke, "Modal cutoff in microstructured optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 27, no. 19, pp. 1684-1686, Oct. 2002.

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell's equations in a planewave basis", Opt. Express, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 173-190, Jan. 2001.

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, P. Andrés and M. V. Andrés, "Vector description of higher-order modes in photonic crystal fibers", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1333-1340, Jul. 2000.

M. J. Steel, T. P. White, C. M. de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran and L. C. Botten, "Symmetry and degeneracy in microstructured optical fibers", Opt. Lett., vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 488-490, Apr. 2001.

R. Guobin, W. Zhi, L. Shuqin and J. Shuisheng, "Mode classification and degeneracy in photonic crystal fibers", Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1310-1321, Jun. 2003.

P. Z. Dashti, Q. Li, C.-H. Lin and H. P. Lee, "Coherent acousto-optic mode coupling in dispersion-compensating fiber by two acoustic gratings with orthogonal vibration directions", Opt. Lett., vol. 28, no. 16, pp. 1403-1405, Aug. 2003.

T. E. Dimmick, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, A. Diez and P. S. J. Russell, "Compact all-fiber acoustooptic tunable filters with small bandwidth-length product", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1210-1212, Sep. 2000.

H. F. Taylor, "Bending effects in optical fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-2, no. 5, pp. 617-628, Oct. 1984.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals, New York: Wiley, 1984.

D. Östling and H. E. Engan, "Narrow-band acousto-optic tunable filtering in a two-mode fiber", Opt. Lett., vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1247-1249, Jun. 1995.

M. D. Nielsen, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibers", Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Commun. Opt. Mater., Tech. Univ. Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark, May 2004.

B. Langli, D. Östling and K. Bløtekjær, "Axial variations in the acoustooptic phase-mismatch coefficient of two-mode fibers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2443-2449, Dec. 1998.

N. A. Mortensen, M. D. Nielsen, J. R. Folkenberg, K. P. Hansen and J. Lægsgaard, "Small-core photonic crystal fibres with weakly disordered air-hole claddings", J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 221-223, Feb. 2004.

I.-K. Hwang, Y.-J. Lee and Y.-H. Lee, "Birefringence induced by irregular structure in photonic crystal fiber", Opt. Express, vol. 11, no. 22, pp. 2799-2806, Nov. 2003.

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