Abstract

A novel two-layer wavelength conversion (TLWC) scheme, for reducing the implementation cost of an optical switching (OS) node, is presented in this paper. The study stems from practical observation that wavelength converters are expensive. The paper thus presents a new OS node architecture that uses significantly less wavelength converters without compromising on drop performance. In this TLWC system, partial wavelength converters (PWCs), which can only convert wavelengths within a limited range, form the first layer; thereafter, complete wavelength converters (CWCs), which can convert wavelengths within all input ranges, form the second layer. When new optical data needs a wavelength converter, PWC resources are first provided; if PWC resources are not available, CWC resources are used. For the case of the CWC layer, a sharing-mode scheme called the share per fiber (SPF) mode for improving the utilization of the limited number of wavelength converters is proposed. Subsequently, a two-dimensional Markov-chain model of TLWC-SPF is presented to evaluate its performance. Numerical-simulation results are presented to verify the accuracy of the analytical model. The analysis shows that the cost of the OS fabric of TLWC-SPF is similar to an OS node employing a limited number of CWCs (i.e., CWC-SPF). However, in terms of wavelength-converter savings, the TLWC-SPF architecture provides 50% (in heavy load) savings compared to full wavelength conversion (FWC) optical nodes, while 40% savings is achieved compared against CWC-SPF nodes.

© 2006 IEEE

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  2. M. Renaud, et al. "Network and system concepts for optical packet switching", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 96-102, Apr. 1997.
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  11. A. Zalesky, H. L. Vu, M. Zukerman, Z. Rosberg and E. W. M. Wong, "Evaluation of limited wavelength conversion and deflection routing as methods to reduce blocking probability in optical burst switched networks", in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Communications, vol. 3, Paris, France,Jun. 20-24 2004, pp. 1543-1547.
  12. T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen and K. E. Stubkjaer, "All-optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor optical amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 942-954, Jun. 1996.
  13. H. Li, I. L.-J. Thng and Q. Zhao, "Upper and lower bounds of performance analysis for partial wavelength converters in optical switching networks", Comput. Netw.,
  14. X. Yu, Y. Chen and C. Qiao, "A study of traffic statistics of assembled burst traffic in optical burst switched network", in Proc. Optical Networking and Communications (OptiComm), vol. 4874, Boston, MA, 2002, pp. 149-159.
  15. H. Li and I. L.-J. Thng, "Edge node buffer usage in optical burst switching networks", Photonic Netw. Commun,
  16. S. M. Ross, Stochastic Processes, New York: Wiley, 1983, pp. 168-171.
  17. Z. Zhang and Y. Yang, "Distributed scheduling algorithms for wavelength convertible WDM optical interconnects", in Proc. IEEE Int. Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS), Nice, France,Apr. 2003, p. 72.
  18. D. Mitra, C. Nuzman, I. Saniee and P. Whiting, "Optical crossconnect with shared wavelength conversion under dynamic loading", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibit (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 17-22 2002, pp. 160-162.

Other

C. Qiao and M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching (OS)-A new paradigm for an optical Internet", J. High Speed Netw., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 69-84, Jan. 1999.

M. Renaud, et al. "Network and system concepts for optical packet switching", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 96-102, Apr. 1997.

D. Banerjee and B. Mukherjee, "Wavelength-routed optical networks: Linear formulation, resource budgeting tradeoffs and a reconfiguration study", IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 598-607, Oct. 2000.

V. Eramo and M. Listanti, "Packet loss in a bufferless optical WDM switch employing shared tunable wavelength converters", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1818-1833, Dec. 2000.

V. Eramo, M. Listanti and P. Pacifici, "A comparison study on the number of wavelength converters needed in synchronous and asynchronous all-optical switching architectures", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 340-355, Feb. 2003.

H. Li and I. L.-J. Thng, "Performance analysis of a limited number of wavelength converters in an optical switching node", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1130-1132, May 2005.

H. Li and I. L.-J. Thng, "Performance analysis of a limited number of wavelength converters by share per node in optical burst switching network", Comput. Netw.,

F. B. Shepherd and A. Vetta, "Lighting fibers in a dark network", IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1583-1588, Nov. 2004.

G. Shen, S. K. Bose, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu and T. Y. Chai, "Performance study on a WDM packet switch with limited-range wavelength converters", IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 432-434, Oct. 2001.

V. Eramo, M. Listanti and M. Di Donato, "Performance evaluation of a bufferless optical packet switch with limited-range wavelength converters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 644-646, Feb. 2004.

A. Zalesky, H. L. Vu, M. Zukerman, Z. Rosberg and E. W. M. Wong, "Evaluation of limited wavelength conversion and deflection routing as methods to reduce blocking probability in optical burst switched networks", in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Communications, vol. 3, Paris, France,Jun. 20-24 2004, pp. 1543-1547.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen and K. E. Stubkjaer, "All-optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor optical amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 942-954, Jun. 1996.

H. Li, I. L.-J. Thng and Q. Zhao, "Upper and lower bounds of performance analysis for partial wavelength converters in optical switching networks", Comput. Netw.,

X. Yu, Y. Chen and C. Qiao, "A study of traffic statistics of assembled burst traffic in optical burst switched network", in Proc. Optical Networking and Communications (OptiComm), vol. 4874, Boston, MA, 2002, pp. 149-159.

H. Li and I. L.-J. Thng, "Edge node buffer usage in optical burst switching networks", Photonic Netw. Commun,

S. M. Ross, Stochastic Processes, New York: Wiley, 1983, pp. 168-171.

Z. Zhang and Y. Yang, "Distributed scheduling algorithms for wavelength convertible WDM optical interconnects", in Proc. IEEE Int. Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS), Nice, France,Apr. 2003, p. 72.

D. Mitra, C. Nuzman, I. Saniee and P. Whiting, "Optical crossconnect with shared wavelength conversion under dynamic loading", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. and Exhibit (OFC), Anaheim, CA, Mar. 17-22 2002, pp. 160-162.

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