Abstract

Abstract—This paper addresses the problem of dynamically provisioning both low-speed<sup>1</sup> unicast and multicast connection requests in mesh-based wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical networks. Several routing/provisioning schemes to dynamically provision both unicast and multicast connection requests are presented. In addition, a constraint-based grooming strategy is devised to utilize the overall network resources as efficiently as possible. Based on this strategy, several different sequential multicast grooming heuristics are first presented. Then, we devise a hybrid grooming approach and combine it with sequential approaches to achieve a grooming scheme that is biased toward serving multicast traffic demands in comparison with all other sequential grooming approaches. To achieve our objective, we decompose the problem into four subproblems: 1) routing problem; 2) light-tree-based logical-topology-design problem; 3) provisioning problem; and 4) traffic-grooming problem. The simulation results of the proposed schemes are compared with each other and with those of conventional nongrooming approaches. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed paper to address and examine the problem of grooming dynamic multicast traffic demands.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 2nd ed. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufman, Nov. 2001.
  2. K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, "A review of traffic grooming in WDM optical networks: Architectures and challenges", SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 55-64, Mar./Apr. 2003.
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  6. X. Zhang and C. Qiao, "An effective and comprehensive approach for traffic grooming and wavelength assignment in SONET/WDM rings", IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 608-617, Oct. 2000.
  7. S. Thiagarajan and A. Somani, "Capacity fairness of WDM networks with grooming capabilities", SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 24-31, May/Jun. 2001.
  8. H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, "A novel, generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks", IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 285-299, Apr. 2003.
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  22. D.-N. Yang and W. Liao, "Design of light-tree based logical topologies for multicast streams in wavelength routed optical networks", in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Communications (INFOCOM), vol. 22, San Francisco, CA, Mar. 2003, pp. 32-41.
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  25. F. K. Hwang and D. Richards, "The Steiner tree problem", Networks, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 55-89, Jan. 1992.
  26. H. Takahashi and A. Matsuyama, "An approximate solution for the Steiner problem in graphs", Math. Jpn., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 573-577, 1980.
  27. A. Mokhtar and M. Azizoglu, "Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks", IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 197-206, Apr. 1998.
  28. A. Khalil, A. Hadjiantonis, G. Ellinas and M. A. Ali, "Optical layer-based unified control plane for emerging IP/MPLS over WDM networking architecture", in Proc. 29th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Rimini, Italy,Sep. 2003, pp. 836-837.
  29. A. Khalil, A. Hadjiantonis, G. Ellinas and M. A. Ali, "A novel IP-over-optical network interconnection model for the next-generation optical internet", in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications (GLOBECOM), San Francisco, CA, Dec. 2003, pp. 3984-3989.
  30. Y. Ye, C. Assi, S. Dixit and M. A. Ali, "A simple dynamic integrated provisioning/protection scheme in IP over WDM networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 174-182, Nov. 2001.

Other (30)

R. Ramaswami and K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, 2nd ed. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufman, Nov. 2001.

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, "A review of traffic grooming in WDM optical networks: Architectures and challenges", SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 55-64, Mar./Apr. 2003.

E. Modiano and P. J. Lin, "Traffic grooming in WDM networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 124-129, Jul. 2001.

R. Dutta and G. N. Rouskas, "On optimal traffic grooming in WDM rings", IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 110-121, Jan. 2002.

O. Grestel, R. Ramaswami and G. Sasaki, "Cost effective traffic grooming in WDM rings", IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 618-630, Oct. 2000.

X. Zhang and C. Qiao, "An effective and comprehensive approach for traffic grooming and wavelength assignment in SONET/WDM rings", IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 608-617, Oct. 2000.

S. Thiagarajan and A. Somani, "Capacity fairness of WDM networks with grooming capabilities", SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 24-31, May/Jun. 2001.

H. Zhu, H. Zang, K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, "A novel, generic graph model for traffic grooming in heterogeneous WDM mesh networks", IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 285-299, Apr. 2003.

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, "Traffic grooming in an optical WDM mesh network", IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 122-133, Jan. 2002.

B. Doshi, et al. "Optical network design and restoration", Bell Labs Tech. J., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 58-84, Jan.-Mar. 1999.

C. Assi, Y. Ye, A. Shami, S. Dixit and M. Ali, "Integrated routing algorithms for provisioning"Sub-Wavelength"connections in IP-over-WDM networks", Photonic Netw. Commun., vol. 4, no. 3/4, pp. 377-390, Jul. 2002.

G. Sahin and M. Azizoglu, "Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in wide-area networks", in Proc. SPIE-All Optical Networking, Boston, MA, Nov. 1998, pp. 197-208.

R. Malli, X. Zhang and C. Qiao, "Benefits of multicasting in all-optical networks", in Proc. SPIE-All Optical Networking, Boston, MA, Nov. 1998, pp. 209-220.

X. Zhang, J. Wei and C. Qiao, "On fundamental issues in IP over WDM multicast", in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), Boston, MA, Oct. 1999, pp. 84-90.

X. Zhang, J. Wei and C. Qiao, "Constrained multicast routing in WDM networks with sparse light splitting", in Proc. Int. Conf. Computer Communications (INFOCOM), Tel-Aviv, Israel,Mar. 2000, pp. 100-110.

Y. Sun, J. Gu and D. H. K. Tsang, "Multicast routing in all-optical wavelength-routed networks", SPIE Opt. Netw. Mag., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 101-109, Jul./Aug. 2001.

L. H. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, "Light-trees: Optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength-routed networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 67-73, Feb. 1999.

S. Jiang, "Multicast multihop lightwave network: Design and implementation", Center Telecommun. Res., Columbia Univ., New York, CTR Tech. Rep. 418 95 24, 1995.

K. Bala, "Routing in linear networks", Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng., Columbia Univ., New York, 1992.

K. Bala, K. Petropoulos and T. E. Stern, "Multicasting in linear lightwave networks", in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Communications (INFOCOM), San Francisco, CA, Mar. 1993, pp. 1350-1358.

A. Kamal and R. Ul-Mustafa, "Multicast traffic grooming in WDM networks", in Proc. SPIE/IEEE Optical Networking and Communications (OptiComm), Dallas, TX, Oct. 2003, pp. 25-36.

D.-N. Yang and W. Liao, "Design of light-tree based logical topologies for multicast streams in wavelength routed optical networks", in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Communications (INFOCOM), vol. 22, San Francisco, CA, Mar. 2003, pp. 32-41.

S. Deering, "Multicast routing in Internetworks and extended LANs", Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Comput. Sci., Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA, Aug. 1988.

M. R. Garey, R. L. Graham and D. S. Johnson, "The complexity of computing Steiner minimal trees", SIAM J. Appl. Math., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 835-859, 1977.

F. K. Hwang and D. Richards, "The Steiner tree problem", Networks, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 55-89, Jan. 1992.

H. Takahashi and A. Matsuyama, "An approximate solution for the Steiner problem in graphs", Math. Jpn., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 573-577, 1980.

A. Mokhtar and M. Azizoglu, "Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks", IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 197-206, Apr. 1998.

A. Khalil, A. Hadjiantonis, G. Ellinas and M. A. Ali, "Optical layer-based unified control plane for emerging IP/MPLS over WDM networking architecture", in Proc. 29th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, Rimini, Italy,Sep. 2003, pp. 836-837.

A. Khalil, A. Hadjiantonis, G. Ellinas and M. A. Ali, "A novel IP-over-optical network interconnection model for the next-generation optical internet", in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications (GLOBECOM), San Francisco, CA, Dec. 2003, pp. 3984-3989.

Y. Ye, C. Assi, S. Dixit and M. A. Ali, "A simple dynamic integrated provisioning/protection scheme in IP over WDM networks", IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 174-182, Nov. 2001.

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