Abstract

This paper presents a simple and efficient model for estimating the bit error rate (BER) in a cascade of optical reamplification and reshaping (2R) regenerators. The model includes the influences of amplifier noise, finite extinction ratio (ER), and nonlinear reshaping. The interplay between the different signal impairments and the regenerating nonlinearity is investigated. It is shown that an increase in nonlinearity can compensate for an increase in noise figure or decrease in signal power. Furthermore, the influence of the improvement in signal ER along the cascade and the importance of choosing the proper threshold of the nonlinearity are investigated.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. O. Leclerc, et al. "Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2779-2790, Nov. 2003.
  2. C. Bornholdt, J. Slovak and B. Sartorius, "Semiconductor-based all-optical 3R regenerator demonstrated at 40 Gb/s", Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 192-193, Feb. 2004.
  3. B. Lavigne, P. Guerber, P. Brindel, E. Balmefrezol and B. Dagens, "Cascade of 100 optical 3R regenerators at 40 Gb/s based on all-active Mach-Zehnder interferometers", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001, p. 290.
  4. J. Leuthold, J. Jaques and S. Cabot, "All-optical wavelength conversion and regeneration", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, 2004, p. 803.
  5. L. J. Christiansen, L. Xu, K. Yvind, F. Öhman, L. Oxenløve and J. Mørk, "2R regeneration in concatenated semiconductor optical amplifier and electroabsorbers", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden, 2004,Paper Mo3.4.3,. pp. 30-31.
  6. F. Öhman, S. Bischoff, B. Tromborg and J. Mørk, "Noise and regeneration in semiconductor waveguides with saturable gain and absorption", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 245-255, Mar. 2004.
  7. J. Mørk, F. Öhman and S. Bishoff, "Analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded all-optical regenerators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1479-1481, Oct. 2003.
  8. R. Hainberger, T. Hoshida, S. Watanabe and H. Onaka, "BER estimation in optical fiber transmission systems employing all-optical 2R regenerators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 746-754, Mar. 2004.
  9. P. Öhlen and E. Berglind, "Noise accumulation and BER estimates in concatenated nonlinear optoelectronic repeaters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 1011-1013, Jul. 1997.
  10. K. Obermann and K. Petermann, "Estimation of BER performance and cascadability of wavelength converters based on cross-gain modulation in semiconductor optical amplifiers", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.-Optoelectron., vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 133-137, Apr. 2000.
  11. P. Öhlen and E. Berglind, "Measurements and modelling of pattern-dependent BER and jitter in reshaping optoelectronic repeaters", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.-Optoelectron., vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 97-103, Apr. 2000.
  12. P. Öhlen and E. Berglind, "BER caused by jitter and amplitude noise in limiting optoelectronic repeaters with excess bandwidth", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.-Optoelectron., vol. 145, no. 3, pp. 147-150, Jun. 1998.
  13. G. H. Einarsson, Principles of Lightwave Communication, 1st ed. New York: Wiley, 1996.
  14. N. A. Olsson, "Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 1071-1082, Jul. 1989.
  15. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1997.
  16. O. Leclerc, "Optical vs. electronic in-line signal processing in optical communication systems: An exciting challenge for optical devices", in Proc. Tech. Dig. Eur. Conf. Integrated Optics (ECIO), Prague, Czech Republic, 2003, pp. 55-67.
  17. B. Lavigne, D. Chiaroni, P. Guerber, L. Hamon and A. Jourdan, "Improvement of regeneration capabilities in semiconductor optical amplifier-based 3R regenerator", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), San Diego, CA, 1999, p. 128.
  18. D. M. Baney, P. Gallion and R. S. Tucker, "Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 122-154, Apr. 2000.

Other (18)

O. Leclerc, et al. "Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 2779-2790, Nov. 2003.

C. Bornholdt, J. Slovak and B. Sartorius, "Semiconductor-based all-optical 3R regenerator demonstrated at 40 Gb/s", Electron. Lett., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 192-193, Feb. 2004.

B. Lavigne, P. Guerber, P. Brindel, E. Balmefrezol and B. Dagens, "Cascade of 100 optical 3R regenerators at 40 Gb/s based on all-active Mach-Zehnder interferometers", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001, p. 290.

J. Leuthold, J. Jaques and S. Cabot, "All-optical wavelength conversion and regeneration", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Los Angeles, CA, 2004, p. 803.

L. J. Christiansen, L. Xu, K. Yvind, F. Öhman, L. Oxenløve and J. Mørk, "2R regeneration in concatenated semiconductor optical amplifier and electroabsorbers", in Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC), Stockholm, Sweden, 2004,Paper Mo3.4.3,. pp. 30-31.

F. Öhman, S. Bischoff, B. Tromborg and J. Mørk, "Noise and regeneration in semiconductor waveguides with saturable gain and absorption", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 245-255, Mar. 2004.

J. Mørk, F. Öhman and S. Bishoff, "Analytical expression for the bit error rate of cascaded all-optical regenerators", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1479-1481, Oct. 2003.

R. Hainberger, T. Hoshida, S. Watanabe and H. Onaka, "BER estimation in optical fiber transmission systems employing all-optical 2R regenerators", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 746-754, Mar. 2004.

P. Öhlen and E. Berglind, "Noise accumulation and BER estimates in concatenated nonlinear optoelectronic repeaters", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 1011-1013, Jul. 1997.

K. Obermann and K. Petermann, "Estimation of BER performance and cascadability of wavelength converters based on cross-gain modulation in semiconductor optical amplifiers", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.-Optoelectron., vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 133-137, Apr. 2000.

P. Öhlen and E. Berglind, "Measurements and modelling of pattern-dependent BER and jitter in reshaping optoelectronic repeaters", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.-Optoelectron., vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 97-103, Apr. 2000.

P. Öhlen and E. Berglind, "BER caused by jitter and amplitude noise in limiting optoelectronic repeaters with excess bandwidth", Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.-Optoelectron., vol. 145, no. 3, pp. 147-150, Jun. 1998.

G. H. Einarsson, Principles of Lightwave Communication, 1st ed. New York: Wiley, 1996.

N. A. Olsson, "Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 1071-1082, Jul. 1989.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1997.

O. Leclerc, "Optical vs. electronic in-line signal processing in optical communication systems: An exciting challenge for optical devices", in Proc. Tech. Dig. Eur. Conf. Integrated Optics (ECIO), Prague, Czech Republic, 2003, pp. 55-67.

B. Lavigne, D. Chiaroni, P. Guerber, L. Hamon and A. Jourdan, "Improvement of regeneration capabilities in semiconductor optical amplifier-based 3R regenerator", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), San Diego, CA, 1999, p. 128.

D. M. Baney, P. Gallion and R. S. Tucker, "Theory and measurement techniques for the noise figure of optical amplifiers", Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 122-154, Apr. 2000.

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