Abstract

A temperature-compensated strain-sensing scheme based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) that is suitable for strain mapping applications is described. FBGs are bonded to a backing patch, together with an extra grating that is used for temperature compensation/measurement. The patch provides a simpler and more robust way of attaching the FBGs to a structure than directly mounting a bare fiber, though it was necessary to design it in such a way that there was minimal reduction in the strain transferred from the structure to the sensing fibers. Finite element (FE) analysis was used to help design the patch, which was then constructed accordingly. The authors have demonstrated experimentally that the use of the backing patch produces a reduction in strain sensitivity of only around 4%, which is slightly better than theoretically predicted values. The temperature measuring FBG had to be bonded in such a way that it experienced the changes in temperature, but not the strain, to which the structure was subjected. A design for doing this was developed and proven. The use of a backing patch to develop a rosette configuration of Bragg gratings, each having a different peak reflective wavelength, is described. The rosette configuration is one that is frequently used with electrical strain gauges and allows here to determine both the magnitude and the direction of strain.

© 2006 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. C. Boller, "Fundamentals on damage monitoring," in AGARD Lecture Series, Neuilly-sur-seine: France: Agard, 1996,vol. 205, pp. 4.1-4.15.
  2. C. Boller, "Ways and options for aircraft structural health management", Smart Mater. Struct., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 432-440, Jun. 2001.
  3. J. N. Kudva, M. J. Grage and M. M. Roberts, "Aircraft structural health monitoring and other smart structures technologies-Perspectives on development of future smart aircraft", in Proc. 2nd Int. Workshop Structural Health Monitoring, Stanford, CA, 1999, pp. 106-119.
  4. W. J. Staszewski, "Monitoring on-line integrated technologies for operational reliability-MONITOR", Air Space Eur., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 67-72, 2000.
  5. C. Boller, "Next generation structural health monitoring and its integration into aircraft design", Int. J. Syst. Sci., vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 1333-1349, Nov. 2000.
  6. H. J. Schmidt, B. Schmidt-Brandecker and G. Tober, "Design of modern aircraft structure and the role of NDT", presented at the 7th Eur. Conf. Non-Destructive Testing, Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper 1, 1998.
  7. T. J. Barnes, "The FAA operational loads monitoring program-Achievements and problems", in Proc. Int. Congr. Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS), vol. 433, Harrogate, U.K., 2000.
  8. M. Neumair, "Structural health monitoring, in-service experience, benefit and way ahead", in Proc. 1st Eur. Workshop Structural Health Monitoring, Paris, France, 2002, pp. 825-832.
  9. S. R. Hunt and I. G. Hebden, "Validation of the eurofighter typhoon structural health and usage monitoring system", Smart Mater. Struct., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 497-503, Jun. 2001.
  10. D. C. Betz, "Application of optical fibre sensors for structural health and usage monitoring", Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Mech. Eng., Sheffield Univ., Sheffield, U.K., 2004.
  11. B. Culshaw, "Measuring strain using optical fibres", Strain, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 105-113, Aug. 2000.
  12. R. M. Measures, Structural Monitoring With Fibre Optic Technology, San Diego, CA: Academic, 2001.
  13. B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggatt, S. G. Allison, T. C. Moore, D. A. Hare, C. F. Batten and D. C. Jegley, "Use of 3000 Bragg grating strain sensors distributed on four eight-meter optical fibers during static load tests of a composite structure", in Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., vol. 4332, Newport Beach, CA, 2001, pp. 133-142.
  14. D. C. Betz, Spezifikationen"Messkette"mit Faser Bragg Gittern, Ulm: Germany: DaimlerChrysler Research Technol., 2003.
  15. M. Trutzel, K. Wauer, D. Betz, L. Staudigel, O. Krumpholz, H. C. Mühlmann, T. Müllert and W. Gleine, "Smart sensing of aviation structures with fiber-optic Bragg grating sensors", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 3986, Newport Beach, CA, 2000, pp. 134-143.
  16. P. D. Foote, "Optical fibre sensing techniques for health and usage monitoring", presented at the RTO AVT Specialists Meeting"Exploitation of Structural Loads/Health Data for Reduced Life Cycle Costs", Brussels, Belgium,1998.
  17. D. C. Betz, L. Staudigel, M. Trutzel, M. Schmuecker, E. Huelsmann and U. Czernay, "Test of a fiber Bragg grating sensor network for commercial aircraft structures", in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Optical Fiber Sensors, Portland, OR, 2002, pp. 55-58.
  18. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1999.
  19. P. Foote and I. Read, "Applications of optical fibre sensors in aerospace: The achievements and challenges", in Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., vol. 4074, Glasgow, U.K., 2000, pp. 246-261.
  20. P. D. Foote, "Optical fibre Bragg grating sensors for aerospace smart structures", in Proc. IEE Colloq. Optical Fibre Gratings and Applications (Digest No.1995/017), vol. 1995/017, London, U.K., 1995, pp. 14/1-14/6.
  21. N. Aldridge, P. D. Foote and I. Read, "Operational load monitoring for aircraft and maritime applications", Strain, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 123-126, Aug. 2000.
  22. Y. C. Roth, FE-Analyse Lichtleitfaser. Kurzdokumentation, Kaiserslautern: Germany: IVW Institut für Verbundwerkstoffe GmbH, 2003.
  23. M. Trutzel, Dehnungsermittlung mit faseroptischen Bragg-Gitter-Sensoren, Berlin: Germany: Fakultät für Elektrotechnik und Informatik: Technische Universität, 2001, p. 291.

Other (23)

C. Boller, "Fundamentals on damage monitoring," in AGARD Lecture Series, Neuilly-sur-seine: France: Agard, 1996,vol. 205, pp. 4.1-4.15.

C. Boller, "Ways and options for aircraft structural health management", Smart Mater. Struct., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 432-440, Jun. 2001.

J. N. Kudva, M. J. Grage and M. M. Roberts, "Aircraft structural health monitoring and other smart structures technologies-Perspectives on development of future smart aircraft", in Proc. 2nd Int. Workshop Structural Health Monitoring, Stanford, CA, 1999, pp. 106-119.

W. J. Staszewski, "Monitoring on-line integrated technologies for operational reliability-MONITOR", Air Space Eur., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 67-72, 2000.

C. Boller, "Next generation structural health monitoring and its integration into aircraft design", Int. J. Syst. Sci., vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 1333-1349, Nov. 2000.

H. J. Schmidt, B. Schmidt-Brandecker and G. Tober, "Design of modern aircraft structure and the role of NDT", presented at the 7th Eur. Conf. Non-Destructive Testing, Copenhagen, Denmark,Paper 1, 1998.

T. J. Barnes, "The FAA operational loads monitoring program-Achievements and problems", in Proc. Int. Congr. Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS), vol. 433, Harrogate, U.K., 2000.

M. Neumair, "Structural health monitoring, in-service experience, benefit and way ahead", in Proc. 1st Eur. Workshop Structural Health Monitoring, Paris, France, 2002, pp. 825-832.

S. R. Hunt and I. G. Hebden, "Validation of the eurofighter typhoon structural health and usage monitoring system", Smart Mater. Struct., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 497-503, Jun. 2001.

D. C. Betz, "Application of optical fibre sensors for structural health and usage monitoring", Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Mech. Eng., Sheffield Univ., Sheffield, U.K., 2004.

B. Culshaw, "Measuring strain using optical fibres", Strain, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 105-113, Aug. 2000.

R. M. Measures, Structural Monitoring With Fibre Optic Technology, San Diego, CA: Academic, 2001.

B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggatt, S. G. Allison, T. C. Moore, D. A. Hare, C. F. Batten and D. C. Jegley, "Use of 3000 Bragg grating strain sensors distributed on four eight-meter optical fibers during static load tests of a composite structure", in Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., vol. 4332, Newport Beach, CA, 2001, pp. 133-142.

D. C. Betz, Spezifikationen"Messkette"mit Faser Bragg Gittern, Ulm: Germany: DaimlerChrysler Research Technol., 2003.

M. Trutzel, K. Wauer, D. Betz, L. Staudigel, O. Krumpholz, H. C. Mühlmann, T. Müllert and W. Gleine, "Smart sensing of aviation structures with fiber-optic Bragg grating sensors", in Proc. SPIE, vol. 3986, Newport Beach, CA, 2000, pp. 134-143.

P. D. Foote, "Optical fibre sensing techniques for health and usage monitoring", presented at the RTO AVT Specialists Meeting"Exploitation of Structural Loads/Health Data for Reduced Life Cycle Costs", Brussels, Belgium,1998.

D. C. Betz, L. Staudigel, M. Trutzel, M. Schmuecker, E. Huelsmann and U. Czernay, "Test of a fiber Bragg grating sensor network for commercial aircraft structures", in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Optical Fiber Sensors, Portland, OR, 2002, pp. 55-58.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, San Diego, CA: Academic, 1999.

P. Foote and I. Read, "Applications of optical fibre sensors in aerospace: The achievements and challenges", in Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., vol. 4074, Glasgow, U.K., 2000, pp. 246-261.

P. D. Foote, "Optical fibre Bragg grating sensors for aerospace smart structures", in Proc. IEE Colloq. Optical Fibre Gratings and Applications (Digest No.1995/017), vol. 1995/017, London, U.K., 1995, pp. 14/1-14/6.

N. Aldridge, P. D. Foote and I. Read, "Operational load monitoring for aircraft and maritime applications", Strain, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 123-126, Aug. 2000.

Y. C. Roth, FE-Analyse Lichtleitfaser. Kurzdokumentation, Kaiserslautern: Germany: IVW Institut für Verbundwerkstoffe GmbH, 2003.

M. Trutzel, Dehnungsermittlung mit faseroptischen Bragg-Gitter-Sensoren, Berlin: Germany: Fakultät für Elektrotechnik und Informatik: Technische Universität, 2001, p. 291.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.