Abstract

A transfer-matrix method based on the coupled-mode theory is developed for the analysis of an all-fiber coupler consisting of two parallel long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs), which can be dissimilar and nonuniform. Using this method, the effects of various forms of nonuniformity introduced along the gratings on the transmission characteristics of the coupler are studied. The nonuniformities considered include pitch detuning, chirping, phase shifts, and index apodization. Numerical examples are given to highlight the conditions of achieving high coupling efficiency and the possibility of suppressing ripples and side lobes in the transmission spectrum. The obtained results are useful for the understanding and the design of various kinds of long-period grating-based devices, such as filters, broadband couplers, signal taps, and add/drop multiplexers.

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 58-65, Jan. 1996.
  2. X. J. Gu, "Wavelength-division multiplexing isolation fiber filter and light source using cascaded long-period fiber gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 509-510, Apr. 1998.
  3. A. A. Abramov, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler and T. A. Strasser, "Widely tunable long-period fiber gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 81-82, Jan. 1999.
  4. A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano and C. R. Davidson, "Long-period fiber-grating-based gain equalizer", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 336-338, Mar. 1996.
  5. J. R. Qian and H. F. Chen, "Gain flattening fiber filters using phase-shifted long period fibre gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1132-1133, May 1998.
  6. M. K. Pandit, K. S. Chiang, Z. H. Chen and S. P. Li, "Tunable long-period fiber gratings for EDFA gain and ASE equalization", Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 181-184, 2000.
  7. M. Das and K. Thyagarajan, "Wavelength-division multiplexing isolation filter using concatenated chirped long period gratings", Opt. Commun., vol. 197, no. 1-3, pp. 67-71, Sep. 2001.
  8. D. B. Stegall and T. Erdogan, "Dispersion control with use of long-period fiber gratings", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 304-312, Feb. 2000.
  9. S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Ryazansky, M. F. Yan, F. V. Dimarcello, W. A. Reed and P. Wisk, "Tunable dispersion compensators utilizing higher order mode fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 727-729, May 2003.
  10. V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period fiber grating sensors", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 692-694, May 1996.
  11. H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1606-1612, Sep. 1998.
  12. K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 966-967, May 2000.
  13. M. N. Ng, Z. Chen and K. S. Chiang, "Temperature compensation of long-period fiber grating for refractive-index sensing with bending effect", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 361-362, Mar. 2002.
  14. X. Shu, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 255-266, Feb. 2002.
  15. K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng and S. Li, "Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 16, pp. 1408-1409, Aug. 2000.
  16. K. S. Chiang, M. N. Ng, Y. Liu and S. Li, "Evanescent-field coupling between two parallel long-period fiber gratings", in Proc. Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), Rio Grande, PR, 2000, pp. 836-837.
  17. V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov and J. Feinberg, "Wavelength-selective coupler and add-drop multiplexer using long-period fiber gratings", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Baltimore, MD, 2000, pp. 28-30.
  18. K. S. Chiang, F. Y. M. Chan and M. N. Ng, "Analysis of two parallel long-period fibre gratings", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1358-1366, May 2004.
  19. H. Ke, K. S. Chiang and J. H. Peng, "Analysis of phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1596-1598, Nov. 1998.
  20. L. R. Chen, "Design of flat-top bandpass filters based on symmetric multiple phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings", Opt. Commun., vol. 205, no. 4-6, pp. 271-276, May 2002.
  21. Z. Wu, X. Dong and Z. Xu, "The chirp characteristics of long-period fiber gratings", in Proc. Int. Society Optical Engineers (SPIE), vol. 4595, Singapore, 2001, pp. 89-93.
  22. X. Yang, X. Guo, C. Lu and C. T. Hiang, "Apodized long-period grating with low insertion loss", Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 283-286, 2002.

Other (22)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 58-65, Jan. 1996.

X. J. Gu, "Wavelength-division multiplexing isolation fiber filter and light source using cascaded long-period fiber gratings", Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 509-510, Apr. 1998.

A. A. Abramov, A. Hale, R. S. Windeler and T. A. Strasser, "Widely tunable long-period fiber gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 81-82, Jan. 1999.

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano and C. R. Davidson, "Long-period fiber-grating-based gain equalizer", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 336-338, Mar. 1996.

J. R. Qian and H. F. Chen, "Gain flattening fiber filters using phase-shifted long period fibre gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1132-1133, May 1998.

M. K. Pandit, K. S. Chiang, Z. H. Chen and S. P. Li, "Tunable long-period fiber gratings for EDFA gain and ASE equalization", Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 181-184, 2000.

M. Das and K. Thyagarajan, "Wavelength-division multiplexing isolation filter using concatenated chirped long period gratings", Opt. Commun., vol. 197, no. 1-3, pp. 67-71, Sep. 2001.

D. B. Stegall and T. Erdogan, "Dispersion control with use of long-period fiber gratings", J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 304-312, Feb. 2000.

S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Ryazansky, M. F. Yan, F. V. Dimarcello, W. A. Reed and P. Wisk, "Tunable dispersion compensators utilizing higher order mode fibers", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 727-729, May 2003.

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period fiber grating sensors", Opt. Lett., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 692-694, May 1996.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey and F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1606-1612, Sep. 1998.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 966-967, May 2000.

M. N. Ng, Z. Chen and K. S. Chiang, "Temperature compensation of long-period fiber grating for refractive-index sensing with bending effect", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 361-362, Mar. 2002.

X. Shu, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 255-266, Feb. 2002.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng and S. Li, "Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings", Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 16, pp. 1408-1409, Aug. 2000.

K. S. Chiang, M. N. Ng, Y. Liu and S. Li, "Evanescent-field coupling between two parallel long-period fiber gratings", in Proc. Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS), Rio Grande, PR, 2000, pp. 836-837.

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov and J. Feinberg, "Wavelength-selective coupler and add-drop multiplexer using long-period fiber gratings", in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication (OFC), Baltimore, MD, 2000, pp. 28-30.

K. S. Chiang, F. Y. M. Chan and M. N. Ng, "Analysis of two parallel long-period fibre gratings", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1358-1366, May 2004.

H. Ke, K. S. Chiang and J. H. Peng, "Analysis of phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1596-1598, Nov. 1998.

L. R. Chen, "Design of flat-top bandpass filters based on symmetric multiple phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings", Opt. Commun., vol. 205, no. 4-6, pp. 271-276, May 2002.

Z. Wu, X. Dong and Z. Xu, "The chirp characteristics of long-period fiber gratings", in Proc. Int. Society Optical Engineers (SPIE), vol. 4595, Singapore, 2001, pp. 89-93.

X. Yang, X. Guo, C. Lu and C. T. Hiang, "Apodized long-period grating with low insertion loss", Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 283-286, 2002.

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