Abstract

A novel Si-based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) electrooptic phase modulator including two shunt oxide layer capacitors integrated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide is simulated and analyzed. The refractive index near the two gate oxide layers is modified by the free carrier dispersion effect induced by applying a positive bias on the electrodes. The theoretical calculation of free carrier distribution coupled with optical guided mode propagation characteristics has been carried out. The influence of the structure parameters such as the width and the doping level of the active region are analyzed. A half-wave voltage V<sub>pi</sub> = 4 V is demonstrated with an 8-mm active region length and a 4-µm width of an inner rib under an accumulation mode. When decreasing the inner rib width to 1 µm, the phase modulation efficiency is even higher, and the rise and fall times reach 50 and 40 ps, respectively, with a 1.0 × 10<sup>17</sup> cm<sup>-3</sup> doping level in the active region.

© 2006 IEEE

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  2. J. P. Lorenzo and R. A. Soref, "1.3 µm electrooptic silicon switch", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 6-8, Jul. 1987.
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  20. A. Sciuto, S. Libertino, A. Alessandria, S. Coffa and G. Coppola, "Design, fabrication and testing of an integrated Si-based light modulator", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 228-235, Jan. 2003.
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  22. A. M. Aganwal, L. Liao, J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, X. M. Duan and L. C. Kimerling, "Low-loss polycrystalline silicon waveguides for silicon photonics", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 80, no. 11, pp. 6120-6123, Dec. 1996.
  23. S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1981.
  24. K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 77, no. 11, pp. 1617-1619, Sep. 2000.
  25. J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal and L. C. Kimerling, "Losses in polycrystalline silicon waveguides", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 68, no. 15, pp. 2052-2054, Apr. 1996.

Other (25)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electro-optical effects in silicon", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-23, no. 1, pp. 123-129, Jan. 1987.

J. P. Lorenzo and R. A. Soref, "1.3 µm electrooptic silicon switch", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 6-8, Jul. 1987.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Orlando, FL: API, 1985.

J. W. Liu, J. Z. Yu, S. W. Chen and Z. Y. Li, "Integrated folding 4 × 4 optical matrix switch with total internal reflection mirrors on SOI by anisotropic chemical etching", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1187-1189, Jun. 2005.

R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley and R. M. Osgood, "Fast and low-power thermo-optic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1366-1368, Oct. 2003.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermo-optic switch", IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 2514-2516, Nov. 2004.

A. Irce, G. Breglio and A. Cutolo, "All silicon optoelectronic modulator with 1 GHz switch capability", Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 232-233, Jan. 2003.

Q. F. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Prdhan and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator", Nature, vol. 435, no. 7040, pp. 325-327, May 2005.

D. Marris, E. Cassan and L. Vivien, "Response time analysis of SiGe/Si modulation-doped multiple-quantum-well structures for optical modulation", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 96, no. 11, pp. 6109-6112, Dec. 2004.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. S. Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor", Nature, vol. 427, no. 6975, pp. 615-618, Feb. 2004.

C. A. Barrios and M. Lipson, "Modeling and analysis of high-speed electro-optic modulation in high confinement silicon waveguides using metal-oxide-semiconductor configuration", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 96, no. 11, pp. 6008-6015, Dec. 2004.

A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, P. Spirito and L. Zeni, "Silicon electro-optic modulator based on a three terminal device integrated in a low-loss single-mode SOI waveguide", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 505-518, Mar. 1997.

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida and M. Lipson, "Low-power consumption short-length and high-modulation-depth silicon electrooptic modulator", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 1089-1098, Apr. 2003.

L. Liao, D. S. Rubio, M. Morse, A. S. Liu and D. Hodeg, "High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator", Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 3129-3135, Apr. 2005.

A. S. Liu, D. S. Rubio, L. Liao and M. Paniccia, "Scaling the modulation bandwidth and phase efficiency of a silicon optical modulator", IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 367-372, Mar./Apr. 2005.

L. Liao, A. Liu, R. Jones, D. Rubin, D. S. Rubio, O. Cohen, M. Salib and M. Paniccia, "Phase modulation efficiency and transmission loss of silicon optical phase shifters", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 250-257, Feb. 2005.

J. P. Denton and G. W. Neudeck, "Full depleted duel-gated thin film SOI P-MOSFET's fabricated in SOI islands with an isolated buried poly-silicon backgate", IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 509-511, Nov. 1996.

J. S. Xia, J. Z. Yu, Y. P. Li and S. W. Chen, "Single-mode condition for silicon rib waveguides with large cross sections", Opt. Eng. Lett., vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 1953-1954, Sep. 2004.

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2", IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1971-1974, Aug. 1991.

A. Sciuto, S. Libertino, A. Alessandria, S. Coffa and G. Coppola, "Design, fabrication and testing of an integrated Si-based light modulator", J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 228-235, Jan. 2003.

S. R. Giguere, L. Friedman, R. A. Soref and J. P. Lorenzo, "Simulation studies of silicon electro-optic waveguide devices", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 68, no. 10, pp. 4964-4970, Nov. 1990.

A. M. Aganwal, L. Liao, J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, X. M. Duan and L. C. Kimerling, "Low-loss polycrystalline silicon waveguides for silicon photonics", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 80, no. 11, pp. 6120-6123, Dec. 1996.

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1981.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 77, no. 11, pp. 1617-1619, Sep. 2000.

J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, A. M. Agarwal and L. C. Kimerling, "Losses in polycrystalline silicon waveguides", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 68, no. 15, pp. 2052-2054, Apr. 1996.

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