Abstract

We report on a tunable optical bandpass filter with precise and independent control of its optical bandwidth and center wavelength. The optical filter is based on a double-pass monochromator configuration and a variable-aperture microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) reflector with two blocking micromirrors that manipulate the optical passband. The MEMS reflector is fabricated on the sidewalls of (110) silicon-on-insulator material by a combination of wet etching and deep reactive ion etching. The 1-dB optical bandwidth is continuously tunable from 3.65 to 6.35 nm by changing the position of the blocking micromirrors with lateral combdrive actuators. The center wavelength can be accurately controlled within a 30-nm spectral range by rotating the diffraction grating and/or changing the center location of the variable aperture with the combdrive actuators. The measured group delay variation across the passband was negligible.

© 2006 IEEE

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

E. Pawlowski, K. Takiguchi, M. Okuno, K. Sasayama, A. Himeno, K. Okamoto, Y. Ohmori, "Variable bandwidth and tunable centre frequency filter using transversal-form programmable optical filter," Electron. Lett. 32, 113-114 (1996).

T. Zhou, D. O. Lopez, M. E. Simon, F. Pardo, V. A. Aksyuk, D. T. Neilson, "MEMS-based 14 GHz resolution dynamic optical filter," Electron. Lett. 39, 1744-1746 (2003).

Hewlett-Packard J. (1)

K. R. Wildnauer, Z. Azary, "A double-pass monochromator for wavelength selection in an optical spectrum analyzer," Hewlett-Packard J. 44, 68-74 (1993).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. R. Giles, C. K. Madsen, R. E. Slusher, "Dispersive properties of optical filters for WDM systems," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1390-1402 (1998).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (4)

W. Noell, P. A. Clerc, L. Dellmann, B. Guldimann, H. P. Herzig, O. Manzardo, C. R. Marxer, K. J. Weible, R. Dandliker, N. F. Derooij, "Applications of SOI-based optical MEMS," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 148-154 (2002).

D. T. Neilson, H. Tang, D. S. Greywall, N. R. Basavanhally, L. Ko, D. A. Ramsey, J. D. Weld, Y. L. Low, F. Pardo, D. O. Lopez, P. Busch, J. Prybyla, M. Haueis, C. S. Pai, R. Scotti, R. Ryf, "Channel equalization and blocking filter utilizing microelectromechanical mirrors," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 563-569 (2004).

K. Yu, O. Solgaard, "Tunable optical transversal filters based on a Gires–Tournois interferometer with MEMS phase shifters," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 588-597 (2004).

D. Hah, P. R. Patterson, H. D. Nguyen, H. Toshiyoshi, M. C. Wu, "Theory and experiments of angular vertical comb-drive actuators for scanning micromirrors," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 505-513 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (9)

X. Liu, L. F. Mollenauer, X. Wei, "Impact of group-delay ripple in transmission systems including phase-modulated formats," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 305-307 (2004).

A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, L. Stulz, "Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 99-101 (2003).

I. Lyubomirsky, B. Pitchumani, "Impact of optical filtering on duobinary transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1969-1971 (2004).

Y. K. Su, L. Moller, R. Ryf, C. J. Xie, X. Liu, "Feasibility study of 0.8-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency at 160 Gb/s using phase-correlated RZ signals with vestigial sideband filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1388-1390 (2004).

M. Pfennigbauer, M. M. Strasser, M. Pauer, P. J. Winzer, "Dependence of optically preamplified receiver sensitivity on optical and electrical filter bandwidths—Measurement and simulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 831-833 (2002).

I. Lyubomirsky, S. Shetty, J. Roman, M. Y. Frankel, "Optimum 10-Gb/s NRZ receiver bandwidths for ultradense WDM transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 870-872 (2002).

L. Moller, J. H. Sinsky, H. Haunstein, S. Chandrasekhar, C. R. Doerr, L. Leuthold, C. A. Burrus, L. L. Buhl, "Higher order PMD distortion mitigation based on optical narrow bandwidth signal filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 558-560 (2002).

M. Knapczyk, A. Krishnan, L. G. De Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, "Reconfigurable optical filter based on digital mirror arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1743-1745 (2005).

T. Sano, T. Iwashima, M. Katayama, T. Kanie, M. Harumoto, M. Shigehara, H. Suganuma, M. Nishimura, "Novel multichannel tunable chromatic dispersion compensator based on MEMS and diffraction grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1109-1110 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

D. T. Neilson, R. Ryf, F. Pardo, V. A. Aksyuk, M. E. Simon, D. O. Lopez, D. M. Marom, S. Chandrasekhar, "MEMS-based channelized dispersion compensator with flat passbands," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 101-105 (2004).

D. M. Marom, D. T. Neilson, D. S. Greywall, C. S. Pai, N. R. Basavanhally, V. A. Aksyuk, D. O. Lopez, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, Y. Low, P. Kolodner, C. A. Bolle, "Wavelength-selective $1 \times K$ switches using free-space optics and MEMS micromirrors: Theory, design, and implementation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1620-1630 (2005).

Y. Liu, E. Tangdiongga, Z. Li, S. Zhang, H. D. Waardt, G. D. Khoe, H. J. S. Dorren, "Error-free all-optical wavelength conversion at 160 Gb/s using a semiconductor optical amplifier and an optical bandpass filter," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 230-236 (2006).

L. Domash, M. Wu, N. Nemchuk, E. Ma, "Tunable and switchable multiple-cavity thin film filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 126-135 (2004).

S. Ryu, Y. Horiuchi, K. Mochizuki, "Novel chromatic dispersion measurement method over continuous gigahertz tuning range," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1177-1180 (1989).

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (3)

W. J. Ye, S. Mukherjee, N. C. Macdonald, "Optimal shape design of an electrostatic comb drive in microelectromechanical systems," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7, 16-26 (1998).

J. D. Grade, H. Jerman, T. W. Kenny, "Design of large deflection electrostatic actuators," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 335-343 (2003).

W. H. Juan, S. W. Pang, "High-aspect-ratio Si vertical micromirror arrays for optical switching," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7, 207-213 (1998).

J. Micromech. Microeng. (2)

S. S. Yun, J. H. Lee, "A micromachined in-plane tunable optical filter using the thermo-optic effect of crystalline silicon," J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 721-725 (2003).

Y. Uenishi, M. Tsugai, M. Mehregany, "Micro-opto-mechanical devices fabricated by anisotropic etching of (110) silicon," J. Micromech. Microeng. 5, 305-312 (1995).

Opt. Express (1)

Sens. Actuators A, Phys. (2)

K. Yu, D. Lee, U. Krishnamoorthy, N. Park, O. Solgaard, "Micromachined Fourier transform spectrometer on silicon optical bench platform," Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 130/131, 523-530 (2006).

J. Li, A. Q. Liu, Q. X. Zhang, "Tolerance analysis for comb-drive actuator using DRIE fabrication," Sens. Actuators A, Phys. 125, 494-503 (2006).

Other (8)

Corning OptiFocus Collimating Lensed Fiber: Product Information (2003).

D. O. Caplan, W. A. Atia, "A quantum-limited optically-matched communication link," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2001) pp. MM2-1-MM2-3.

D. Lee, K. Yu, O. Solgaard, "Vertical micromirror fabricated in (110) silicon device layer by combination of KOH and DRIE etch," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Int. Conf. Optical MEMS (2004) pp. 174-175.

E. G. Loewen, E. Popov, Diffraction Gratings and Applications (Marcel Dekker, 1997).

K. Yu, D. Lee, O. Solgaard, "Variable bandwidth optical filters with vertical micromirrors and silicon optical bench alignment technology," Proc. 17th Annu. Meeting IEEE LEOS (2004) pp. 531-532.

K. Yu, N. Park, "Characterization of MEMS optical bandpass filters with narrow transition bands," Proc. SPIE—Opt. Transmission, Switching, and Subsyst. III (2005) pp. 2R1-2R8.

G. Wilson, C. J. Chen, P. Gooding, J. E. Ford, "Spectral filter with independently variable center wavelength and bandwidth," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. StockholmSweden (2004) Postdeadline Paper Th4.2.1.

J. D. Berger, D. Anthon, S. Dutta, F. Ilkov, I. F. Wu, "Tunable MEMS devices for reconfigurable optical networks," Proc. OFC (2005) pp. OThD1.

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