Abstract

The authors describe a detailed investigation on tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) structures with tilted angles exceeding 45°. In contrast to the backward mode coupling mechanism of Bragg gratings with normal and small tilting structures, the ex-45° TFBGs facilitate the light coupling to the forward-propagating cladding modes. The authors have also theoretically and experimentally examined the mode coupling transition of TFBGs with small, medium, and large tilt angles. In particular, experiments are conducted to investigate the spectra and far-field distribution, as well as temperature, strain, and refractive-index sensitivities of ex-45° devices. It has been revealed that these ex-45° gratings exhibit ultralow thermal sensitivity. As in-fiber devices, they may be superior to conventional Bragg and long-period gratings when the low thermal cross sensitivity is required.

© 2006 IEEE

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Electron. Lett. (3)

R. Kashyap, R. Wyatt, R. J. Campbell, "Wideband gain flattened erbium fibre amplifier using a photosensitive fibre blazed grating," Electron. Lett. 29, 154-156 (1993).

J. Peupelmann, E. Krause, A. Bandemer, C. Schäffer, "Fibre-polarimeter based on grating taps," Electron. Lett. 38, 1248-1250 (2002).

S. L. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, T. J. Stocki, D. C. Johnson, "Fabrication of tilted fibre-grating polarisation-dependent loss equaliser," Electron. Lett. 37, 284-286 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

P. I. D. C. Reyes, P. S. Westbrook, "Tunable PDL of twisted-tilted fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 828-830 (2003).

P. S. Westbrook, T. A. Strasser, T. Erdogan, "In-line polarimeter using blazed fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1352-1354 (2000).

K. S. Feder, P. S. Westbrook, J. Ging, P. I. Reyes, G. E. Carver, "In-fiber spectrometer using tilted fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 933-935 (2003).

IEEE. J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

M. J. Holmes, R. Kashyap, R. Wyatt, "Physical properties of optical fiber sidetap grating filters: Free-space model," IEEE. J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1353 (1999).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

Y. Li, M. Froggatt, T. Erdogan, "Volume current method for analysis of tilted fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1580-1591 (2001).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci. (1)

T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Tilted fiber phase gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, Opt. Image Sci. 13, 296-313 (1996).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Fabricating fibre edge filters with arbitrary spectral response based on tilted chirped grating structures," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, L1-L3 (1999).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt.Commun. (1)

G. Nemova, J. Chauve, R. Kashyap, "Design of sidetap fiber Bragg grating filters," Opt.Commun. 259, 649-654 (2006).

Other (5)

K. Zhou, X. Chen, A. G. Simpson, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "High extinction ratio in-fiber polarizer based on a 45$^{\circ}$-tilted fiber Bragg grating," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2005) Paper OME22.

R. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder, P. I. Reyes, P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, R. G. Ernst, L. A. Reith, D. M. Gill, "Application of fiber Bragg grating filter/tap module to a wavelength-locked low-chirp directly-modulated 10 Gb/s Rz transmitter," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (2002) pp. 680-682.

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, "In-fiber Bragg grating tap," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (1990) pp. 30.

J. L. Wagener, T. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. Demarco, D. J. Digivanni, "Fiber grating optical spectrum analyzer tap," Proc. ECOC (1997) pp. 65-68.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Grating (Academic, 1999).

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