Abstract

A fast and accurate magnified near-field (NF) measurement technique that employs a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is described to measure the two-dimensional (2-D) intensity distributions of optical waveguides with arbitrary refractive-index profiles. Calibration of the InGaAs CCD camera used in the system is essential in terms of correction for bad pixels, linearity, and uniformity in order to obtain accurate results. The magnification factor of the system is obtained using a calibrated optical dimensional standard. The NF measurement system with the calibrated CCD camera is validated from the mode field diameter (MFD) measured for six single-mode fibers with different refractive-index profiles. The MFD results from the magnified NF technique exhibit good agreement with those obtained from the far-field scanning technique to within 2.3%. An error of about 15% in the MFD would result if corrections to the CCD camera were not applied to the raw measured data. The refractive-index profiles computed from the measured data for a single-mode fiber and a Ti:LiNbO<sub>3</sub> waveguide are also presented. The radial-index profile of the fiber exhibits good agreement with the profile measured from the refracted NF technique.

© 2006 IEEE

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  3. W. T. Anderson, D. L. Philen, "Spot size measurements for single-mode fibers—A comparison of four techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-1, 20-26 (1983).
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Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. M. E. Sladen, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, "Determination of optical fiber refractive index profiles by a near-field scanning technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 255-258 (1976).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

N. M. Dragomir, "Refractive index profiling of optical fibers using differential interference contrast microscopy," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2149-2151 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

A. J. Parker, "Near field measurement of fiber mode field diameters: Effects of defocusing," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 458-460 (1995).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Fukuma, J. Noda, H. Iwasaki, "Optical properties in $\hbox{Ti:LiNbO}_{3}$ strip waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3693-3698 (1978).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

J. Helms, J. Schmidtchen, B. Schuppert, K. Petermann, "Error analysis for refractive-index profile determination from near-field measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 625-633 (1990).

K. Morishita, "Index profiling of three-dimensional optical waveguides by the propagation-mode near-field method," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 1120-1124 (1986).

L. McCaughan, E. Bergmann, "Index distribution of optical waveguides from their mode profile," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-1, 241-244 (1983).

W. T. Anderson, D. L. Philen, "Spot size measurements for single-mode fibers—A comparison of four techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-1, 20-26 (1983).

M. Artiglia, G. Coppa, P. D. Vita, M. Potenza, A. Sharma, "Mode field diameter measurements in single-mode optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1139-1152 (1989).

K. W. Raine, J. G. Baines, D. E. Putland, "Refractive index profiling-state of the art," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1162-1169 (1989).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. J. Parker, K. W. Raine, "An investigation into the performance of microscope objectives with near infrared light," Meas. Sci. Technol. 2, 159-163 (1991).

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. Groebli, B. Gisin, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, "Measuring refractive index profiles of integrated $\hbox{LiNbO}_{3}$ waveguides," Opt. Eng. 34, 2309-2314 (1995).

Other (5)

M. Brucksch, M. Frohlich, W. Sohler, E. Strake, R. Volk, H. Ziegler, "Two-dimensional measurement of intensity distributions of optical modes of $\hbox{Ti:LiNbO}_{3}$ channel waveguides and comparison with numerically calculated results," Proc. SPIE Conf. Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng. 111 (1986) pp. 246-251.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, 1998).

Optical Fibres-Measurement Methods and Test Procedures—Mode Field Diameter (2001) IEC 60793-1-45 Ed. 1.0, Method C.

I. Fatadin, D. Ives, "Calibration and correction of the nonlinearity of an InGaAs array for mode field profiling," Proc. OFMC (2005) pp. 39-43.

Calibration of Fibre-Optic Power Meters (2002) IEC 61315 Ed. 1.0.

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