Abstract

This paper presents an efficient and physically consistent method for modeling lumped electroabsorption (EA) RF modulators. The method extends the original spectral index (SI) waveguide simulation method to the time domain in order to model the time-varying phenomena occurring in the multiple-quantum wells of these modulators. The accuracy of the methodology is first verified on the simpler cases of time-varying homogeneous media and time-varying slab waveguides. The time domain SI method is then used to model pulse generation and chirp phenomena in lumped EA modulators operating at both 10 and 40 GHz producing predictions in good agreement with previously published experimental values.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. D. G. Moodie, M. J. Harlow, M. J. Guy, S. D. Perrin, C. F. Ford, M. J. Robertson, "Discrete electroabsorption modulators with enhanced modulation depth," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1035-2043 (1996).
  2. P. Gerlach, M. Pesche, C. Hanke, B. K. Saravanan, R. Michalzik, "High-frequency analysis of laser-integrated lumped electroabsorption modulators," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. 152, 125-130 (2005).
  3. R. Krahenbuhl, W. K. Burns, "Modeling of broad-band traveling-wave optical-intensity modulators," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Technol. 48, 860-864 (2000).
  4. R. Chen, J. C. Cartledge, "Measurement-based model for the modulation properties of an integrated laser modulator and its applications to systems with tight optical filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1683-1691 (2005).
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Facta Universitatis (Nis) (1)

A. Vukovic, S. Greedy, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, P. C. Kendall, "Advances in spectral methods for optoelectronic design," Facta Universitatis (Nis) 13, 73-82 (2000).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

L. M. Zhang, J. E. Caroll, "Semiconductor 1.55 $\mu\hbox{m}$ laser source with gigabit/second integrated electroabsorptive modulator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2573-2577 (1994).

Y. Kim, H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Han, T. W. Oh, J. Jeong, "Chirp characteristics of 10 Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 900-908 (2000).

P. S. Weitzman, U. Osterberg, "A modified beam propagation method to model second harmonic generation in optical fibres," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1437-1443 (1993).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Nam, "Performance of travelling-wave electroabsorption modulators depending on microwave properties of waveguides calculated using the FDTD method," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 763-769 (2003).

IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. (1)

T. T. Hsu, L. Carin, "FDTD analysis of plane-wave diffraction from microwave devices on an infinite dielectric slab," IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 6, 16-18 (1996).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (2)

L. B. Felsen, G. M. Whitman, "Wave propagation in time-varying media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-18, 242-253 (1970).

R. L. Fante, "Transmission of electromagnetic waves into time-varying media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-19, 417-424 (1971).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

R. W. Jackson, "Full wave, finite element analysis of irregular microstrip discontinuities," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 37, 81-89 (1989).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Technol. (1)

R. Krahenbuhl, W. K. Burns, "Modeling of broad-band traveling-wave optical-intensity modulators," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Technol. 48, 860-864 (2000).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

R. Chen, J. C. Cartledge, "Measurement-based model for the modulation properties of an integrated laser modulator and its applications to systems with tight optical filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1683-1691 (2005).

D. G. Moodie, M. J. Harlow, M. J. Guy, S. D. Perrin, C. F. Ford, M. J. Robertson, "Discrete electroabsorption modulators with enhanced modulation depth," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1035-2043 (1996).

F. Fedotov, A. Nerukh, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, "Investigation of electromagnetic field in a layer with time-varying medium by volterra integral equation method," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 305-314 (2003).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Nerukh, I. Scherbatko, D. Nerukh, "Using evolutionary recursion to solve an electromagnetic problem with time-varying parameters," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 14, 31-36 (1997).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Nerukh, F. Fedotov, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, "Analytic-numerical approach to non-linear problems in dielectric waveguides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 67-85 (2004).

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. (1)

P. Gerlach, M. Pesche, C. Hanke, B. K. Saravanan, R. Michalzik, "High-frequency analysis of laser-integrated lumped electroabsorption modulators," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. 152, 125-130 (2005).

Radiophys. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. I. Averkov, V. P. Boldin, "Waves in non-dispersive non-stationary inhomogeneous media," Radiophys. Quantum Electron. 23, 1060-1066 (1980).

Trans. IRE Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

F. R. Mongenthaler, "Velocity modulation of electromagnetic waves," Trans. IRE Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-6, 167-172 (1958).

Other (5)

P. E. Lewis, J. P. Ward, The Finite Element Method (Addison-Wesley, 1991).

Rib Waveguide Theory by Spectral Index Method (Wiley, 1990).

T. Tamir, Integrated Optics (Springer-Verlag, 1979).

R. M. Knox, P. P. Toulios, "Integrated circuits for the millimeter to optical frequency range," Proc. M. R. I. Symp., Submillimeter Waves (1970) pp. 497-516.

D. K. Kalluri, Electromagnetics of Complex Media (CRC, 1999).

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