Abstract

This paper presents an experimental performance characterization of all-optical subsystems at 40 Gb/s using interconnected hybrid integrated all-optical semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) gates and flip-flop prototypes. It was shown that optical gates can be treated as generic switching elements and, when efficiently interconnected, can form larger and more functional network subsystems. Specifically, this paper reports on all-optical subsystems capable of performing on-the-fly packet clock recovery, 3R regeneration, label/payload separation, and packet routing using the wavelength domain. The all-optical subsystems are capable of operating with packet-mode traffic and are suitable for all-optical label-switched and self-routed network nodes. The intelligent functionality offered, combined with the compactness and stability of the optical gates, verifies the potential that all-optical technology can find application in future data-centric networks with efficient and dynamic bandwidth utilization. This paper also reports on the latest photonic integration breakthroughs as a potential migration path for reducing fabrication cost by developing photonic systems-on-chip utilizing multiple SOA-MZI optical gates on a single chip.

© 2006 IEEE

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (6)

B. Glance, "High performance optical wavelength shifter," Electron. Lett. 28, 1714-1715 (1992).

D. Wolfson, "All-optical wavelength conversion scheme in SOA-based interferometric devices," Electron. Lett. 36, 1794-1795 (2000).

J. Leuthold, C. H. Joyner, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, J. L. Pleumeekers, B. I. Miller, K. Dreyer, C. A. Burrus, "100 Gb/s all-optical wavelength conversion with integrated SOA delayed-interference configuration," Electron. Lett. 36, 1129-1130 (2000).

M. L. Nielsen, "40 Gb/s standard-mode wavelength conversion in all-active MZI with very fast response," Electron. Lett. 39, 385-386 (2003).

S. Diez, "160 Gb/s all-optical demultiplexer using hybrid gain transparent SOA Mach–Zehnder interferometer," Electron. Lett. 36, 1484-1486 (2000).

N. Chi, "Transmission and label encoding/erasure of orthogonally labelled signal using 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK payload and 2.5 Gb/s IM label," Electron. Lett. 39, 1335-1337 (2003).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

M. Saruwatori, "All-optical signal processing in ultrahigh-speed optical transmission," IEEE Commun. Mag. 32, 98-105 (1994).

A. Viswanathan, "Evolution of multiprotocol label switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 36, 165-173 (1998).

K. Vlachos, I. T. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, "STOLAS: Switching technologies for optically labeled signals," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 43-49 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Lattes, "An ultrafast all-optical gate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1718-1723 (1983).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

L. Dittmann, "The European IST project DAVID: A viable approach toward optical packet switching," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1026-1040 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

K. E. Stubkjaer, "Semiconductor optical amplifier-based all-optical gates for high-speed optical processing," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 1428-1435 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (8)

C. Bintjas, "20 Gbps all-optical XOR with UNI gate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 834-836 (2000).

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, K. Tajima, "168-Gb/s all-optical wavelength conversion with a symmetric-Mach–Zehnder-type switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1091-1093 (2001).

N. Calabretta, H. deWaardt, G. D. Khoe, H. J. S. Dorren, "Ultrafast asynchronous multioutput all-optical header processor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1182-1184 (2004).

J. M. Martinez, "All-optical address recognition scheme for label-swapping networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 151-153 (2006).

C. Bintjas, "All-optical packet address and payload separation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1728-1730 (2002).

Y. M. Lin, W. I. Way, G. K. Chang, "A novel optical label swapping technique using erasable optical single-sideband subcarrier label," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1088-1090 (2000).

N. Chi, Z. Jianfeng, P. Jeppesen, "All-optical subcarrier labeling based on the carrier suppression of the payload," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 781-783 (2003).

C. W. Chow, H. K. Tsang, "Orthogonal label switching using polarization-shift-keying payload and amplitude-shift-keying label," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2475-2477 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (9)

K. Vlachos, "An optical IM/FSK coding technique for the implementation of a label-controlled arrayed waveguide packet router," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2617-2628 (2003).

M. Daikoku, N. Yoshikane, T. Otani, H. Tanaka, "Optical 40-Gb/s 3R regenerator with a combination of the SPM and XAM effects for all-optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1142-1148 (2006).

J. P. Turkiewicz, "160 Gb/s OTDM networking using deployed fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 225-235 (2005).

O. Leclerc, "Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2779-2790 (2003).

O. Leclerc, "Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2779-2790 (2003).

M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, H. G. Weber, "SLALOM: Semiconductor laser amplifier in a loop mirror," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2099-2112 (1995).

D. J. Blumenthal, "All-optical label swapping networks and technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2058-2075 (2000).

C. Guillemot, "Transparent optical packet switching: The European ACTS KEOPS project approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2117-2134 (1998).

A. Carena, M. D. Vaughn, R. Gaudino, M. Shell, D. J. Blumenthal, "OPERA: An optical packet experimental routing architecture with label swapping capability," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2135-2145 (1998).

J. Lightw. Technol.—Special Issue Optical Networks (1)

F. Ramos, "IST-LASAGNE: Towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops," J. Lightw. Technol.—Special Issue Optical Networks 23, 2993-3011 (2005).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Tajima, "All-optical switch with switch-off time unrestricted by carrier lifetime," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1746-L1749 (1993).

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, A. E. Kelly, R. J. Manning, "All-optical full adder with bit-differential delay," Opt. Commun. 168, 89-93 (1999).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Pruncal, I. Glesk, M. Kane, "A terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer," Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787-790 (1993).

Y. Liu, "Demonstration of a variable optical delay for a recirculating buffer by using all-optical signal processing," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1748-1750 (2004).

Other (8)

G. Maxwell, "WDM-enabled, 40 Gb/s hybrid integrated all-optical regenerator," Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (2005) pp. 15-16.

G. Maxwell, "Very low coupling loss, hybrid-integrated all-optical regenerator with passive assembly," European Conf. Optical Communication CopenhagenDenmark (2000) Paper PD3.5.

K. Vyrsokinos, "ARTEMIS: A new architecture for all-optical asynchronous self-routing network with efficient contention protection and QoS differentiation," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2005) pp. 667-668.

A. Poustie, R. Wyatt, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, B. R. Hemenway, "Optical timing jitter transfer characteristics of a 40 Gb/s hybrid integrated SOA-Mach–Zehnder interferometer all-optical regenerator," European Conf. Optical Communication GlasgowU.K. (2005) We.2.5.7.

B. Lavigne, "Low input power all-optical 3R regenerator based on SOA devices for 42.66 Gb/s ULH WDM RZ transmissions with 23 dB span loss and all-EDFA amplification," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2003) pp. PD15-P1-3.

J. Slovak, C. Bornholdt, B. Sartorius, "All-optical 3R regenerator for asynchronous data packets at 40 Gb/s," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2004) pp. 388-389.

B. S. Robinson, S. A. Hamilton, E. P. Ippen, "Multiple wavelength demultiplexing using an ultrafast nonlinear interferometer," Proc. CLEO (2001) pp. 528.

Y. Liu, "Error-free 320 Gb/s SOA-based wavelength conversion using optical filtering," Optical Fiber Communications Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Post-deadline Paper PD-28.

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