Abstract

In this paper, the phase-noise performance of optically generated electrical signals based on external optical modulation techniques is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Mathematical models are developed to represent perturbations on the transmitted optical signal caused by the phase fluctuations of the electrical drive signal applied to the external modulator and the optical carrier that feeds the external modulator. Closed-form expressions of the power spectral density (PSD) for the electrical signals, generated both locally and remotely, are derived. The calculated PSD of the locally generated electrical signal indicates that its phase noise is determined only by the phase noise of the electrical drive signal. The PSD of the remotely generated signal shows that its spectral quality is also affected by the chromatic dispersion of the fiber and the optical carrier linewidth. An experimental setup that can generate a millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal, continuously tunable from 32 to 60 GHz using an electrical drive signal tunable from 8 to 15 GHz, is built. The spectra of the generated millimeter-wave signal are measured for both locally and remotely generated electrical signals, with optical carriers of different linewidths. The theoretical results agree with the experimental measurements.

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Electron. Lett. (9)

A. J. Cooper, "Fibre/radio for the provision of cordless/mobile telephony services in the access network," Electron. Lett. 26, 2054-2056 (1990).

R. P. Braun, G. Grosskopf, D. Rohde, F. Schmidt, "Optical millimetre-wave generation and transmission experiments for mobile 60 GHz band communications," Electron. Lett. 32, 626-628 (1996).

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, D. M. Bloom, "Microwave signal generation with injection-locked laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 19, 491-493 (1983).

R. T. Ramos, A. J. Seeds, "Fast heterodyne optical phase lock loop using double quantum well laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 28, 82-83 (1992).

J. J. O'Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann, R. Hofstetter, "Optical generation of very narrow linewidth millimetre wave signals," Electron. Lett. 28, 2309-2311 (1992).

J. J. O'Reilly, P. M. Lane, "Fibre-supported optical generation and delivery of 60 GHz signals," Electron. Lett. 30, 1329-1330 (1994).

X. J. Meng, J. Menders, "Optical generation of microwave signals using SSB-based frequency-doubling scheme," Electron. Lett. 39, 103-105 (2003).

F. N. Timofeev, S. Bennett, R. Griffin, P. Bayvel, A. J. Seeds, R. Wyatt, R. Kashyap, M. Robertson, "High spectral purity millimetre-wave modulated optical signal generation using fibre grating lasers," Electron. Lett. 34, 668-669 (1998).

G. J. Cowle, P. R. Morkel, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, "Spectral broadening due to fibre amplifier phase noise," Electron. Lett. 26, 424-425 (1990).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

A. G. Armada, M. Calvo, "Phase noise and sub-carrier spacing effects on the performance of an OFDM communication system," IEEE Commun. Lett. 2, 11-13 (1998).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. E. Richter, H. I. Mandelberg, M. S. Kruger, P. A. McGrath, "Linewidth determination from self-heterodyne measurements with subcoherence delay times," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 2070-2074 (1986).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

B. Mukherjee, "WDM optical communication networks: Progress and challenges," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 1810-1824 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

W. Shieh, L. Maleki, "Phase noise of optical interference in photonic RF systems," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 1617-1619 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

E. Costa, S. Pupolin, "M-QAM-OFDM system performance in the presence of a nonlinear amplifier and phase noise," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 462-472 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (8)

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, R. Laming, M. J. Cole, "Continuously variable true time-delay optical feeder for phased-array antenna employing chirped fiber gratings," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1531-1536 (1997).

M. Bibey, F. Deborgies, M. Krakowski, D. Mongardien, "Very low phase-noise optical links-experiments and theory," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 2257-2261 (1999).

R. Hofstetter, H. Schmuck, R. Heidemann, "Dispersion effects in optical millimeter-wave systems using self-heterodyne method for transport and generation," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43, 2263-2269 (1995).

U. Gliese, S. Norskov, T. N. Nielsen, "Chromatic dispersion in fiber-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 44, 1716-1724 (1996).

L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge, M. J. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, A. J. Seeds, "Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1257-1264 (1999).

H. Ogawa, D. Polifko, S. Banba, "Millimeter-wave fiber optics systems for personal radio communication," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 40, 2285-2293 (1992).

L. Nöel, D. Wake, D. G. Moodie, D. D. Marcenac, L. D. Westbrook, D. Nesset, "Novel techniques for high capacity 60 GHz fiber-radio transmission systems," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1416-1423 (1997).

J. E. Román, L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, G. C. Tavik, M. Livingston, M. G. Parent, "Fiber-optic remoting of an ultrahigh dynamic range radar," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46, 2317-2323 (1998).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

J. J. O'Reilly, M. Lane, "Remote delivery of video services using millimeter-wave and optics," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 369-375 (1994).

G. Qi, J. P. Yao, J. Seregelyi, C. Bélisle, S. Paquet, "Optical generation and distribution of continuously tunable millimeter-wave signals using an optical phase modulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2687-2695 (2005).

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. Rutman, F. L. Walls, "Characterization of frequency stability in precision frequency sources," Proc. IEEE 79, 952-960 (1991).

Other (16)

A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, 1984).

H. E. Rowe, Signals and Noise in Communication Systems (Van Nostrand, 1965).

Product Note 11729B-1Phase Noise Characterization of Microwave Oscillators-Phase Detector Method Palo AltoCAHewlett PackardPalo AltoCA.

W. P. Robins, Phase Noise in Signal Sources (Peter Peregrinus, 1982) pp. 77-78.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 1985) pp. 167-168.

P. J. Matthews, R. D. Esman, "Intrinsic microwave phase noise of fiber-optic links," IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Tech. Dig. (1998) pp. 1517-1519.

G. Qi, J. Yao, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, J. C. Bélisle, "Millimeter-wave carrier generation using an optical phase modulator and an optical notch filter," Photonics North OttawaONCanada (2004) Paper 102.

B. Pourbahri, P. A. Davies, D. S. George, D. Wake, "The effects of fiber amplifier phase noise on radio over fibre signals," Proc. Broadband Commun. (2000) pp. 89-91.

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, 2000) pp. 159-161.

J. Rogers, C. Plett, Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Design (Artech House, 2003) pp. 283-287.

E. C. Niehenke, P. Hercafeld, "An optical link for W-band transmit/receive applications," Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Tech. Dig. (1997) pp. 35-38.

M. Goloubkoff, E. Pénard, D. Tanguy, P. Legaud, D. Mathoorasing, F. Devaux, C. Minot, "Outdoor and indoor applications for broadband local loop with fibre supported millimeter-wave radio systems," IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Tech. Dig. (1997) pp. 31-34.

A. J. Seeds, "Broadband wireless access using millimetre-wave over fibre systems," Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. (1997) pp. 23-25.

D. Novak, "The merging of the wireless and fiberoptic worlds," CLEO Tech. Dig. (2002) pp. 276.

P. Shen, N. J. Gomes, P. A. Davies, W. P. Shillue, P. G. Huggard, B. N. Ellison, "High-purity millimetre-wave photonic local oscillator generation and delivery," Proc. Microw. Photon. (2003) pp. 189-192.

P. O. Hedekvist, B. E. Olsson, A. Wiberg, "Harmonic generation of photonic microwave frequencies utilizing the properties of a phase modulator," Proc. Microw. Photon. (2003) pp. 193-196.

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