Abstract

The impact of multipath interference (MPI) in all-Raman multispan dispersion-compensated links operating at 42.67 Gb/s was studied. D+/D- and D+/D-/D+ compensation schemes were considered using different fiber sets. Optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties due to MPI were calculated for several backward-pumped system configurations, imposing system target OSNR levels suitable for intensity modulation with direct detection (IMDD) and differential phase-shift keying (DPSK). The analysis in this paper confirmed that the D+/D-/D+ OSNR penalty is typically much less than that of the D+/D- scheme. The authors then estimated the increase due to MPI in the number of spans required to satisfy a target OSNR for a given total link length, taking into account Kerr nonlinearities. It turned out that such an increase can be very significant (up to 15%–20%) with the D+/D- scheme and lower but nonnegligible (5%–10%) with the D+/D-/D+ schemes. The analysis confirms that, to substantially curtail the span increase, both forward and backward pumping should be adopted, as recent experimental results have shown. Finally, at the lower OSNR levels required by DPSK with respect to IMDD, the impact of MPI was shown to be smaller across all configurations.

© 2006 IEEE

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  2. J. Bromage, "Raman amplification for fiber communications systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 79-93 (2004).
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Electron. Lett. (1)

S. H. Chang, S. K. Kim, M.-J. Chu, J. H. Lee, "Limitations in fibre Raman amplifiers imposed by Rayleigh scattering of signals," Electron. Lett. 38, 865-867 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

R. Hainberger, T. Hoshida, T. Terahara, H. Onaka, "Comparison of span configurations of Raman-amplified dispersion-managed," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 471-473 (2002).

R. J. Essiambre, P. Winzer, J. Bromage, C. H. Kim, "Design of bidirectionally pumped fiber amplifiers generating double Rayleigh backscattering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 914-916 (2002).

A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, "On the optimization of hybrid Raman/erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1170-1172 (2001).

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, L. Fenghai, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. van der Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, P. Reeves-Hall, "DWDM 40 G transmission over trans-pacific distance (10 000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and all-Raman-amplified 100-km ultraWave fiber spans," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 203-207 (2004).

Z. Tong, H. Wei, "Impacts of SPM/XPM on distributed Raman amplified multispan systems at identical nonlinear phase shift," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 933-935 (2004).

D. F. Grosz, A. Agarwal, A. P. Küng, S. Banerjee, D. N. Maywar, T. H. Wood, "Performance of a ULH single wide-band all-Raman DWDM transmission system over dispersion-managed spans," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1197-1199 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (7)

M.-S. Kao, J. Wu, "Signal light amplification by stimulated Raman scattering in an N-channel WDm optical fiber communication system," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1290-1299 (1989).

T. Tsuritani, K. Ishida, A. Agata, K. Shimomura, I. Morita, T. Tokura, H. Taga, T. Mizuochi, N. Edagawa, S. Akiba, "70-GHz-spaced 40 42.7 Gb/s transpacific transmission over 9400 km using prefiltered CSRZ-DPSK signals, all-Raman repeaters, and symmetrically dispersion-managed fiber spans," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 215-224 (2004).

T. Mizuochi, K. Ishida, T. Kobayashi, J. Abe, K. Kinjo, K. Motoshima, K. Kasahara, "A comparative study of DPSK and OOK WDM transmission over transoceanic distances and their performance degradations due to nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1933-1943 (2003).

J. L. Gimlett, N. K. Cheung, "Effects of phase-to-intensity noise conversion by multiple reflections on gigabit-per-second DFB laser transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 888-894 (1989).

C. R. S. Fludger, R. J. Mears, "Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distribute Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 536-545 (2001).

J. Bromage, "Raman amplification for fiber communications systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 79-93 (2004).

P. Wan, J. Conradi, "Impact of double Rayleigh backscatter noise on digital and analog fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 288-297 (1996).

Other (13)

V. Curri, G. Rizzo, "Statistical properties and system impact of multipath interference in Raman amplifiers," Proc. ECOC (2001) pp. 110-111.

M. Vasilyev, B. Szalabofka, S. Tsuda, J. M. Grochocinski, "Raman noise-figure improvement and multipath-interference mitigation in effective-area-optimized dispersion-managed cable," Proc. OFC (2002) pp. 508-509.

V. Curri, "System advantages of Raman amplifiers," Proc. NFOEC (2000) pp. 35-46.

S. Tenenbaum, P. Poggiolini, "On the impact of MPI in all-Raman dispersion-compensated IMDD and DPSK links," Tyrrhenian Int. Workshop Digital Commun. PisaItaly (2004) Paper III.6.

S. N. Knudsen, "Design and manufacture of dispersion compensating fibers and their performance in systems," Proc. OFC (2002) pp. 330-332.

Y. Zhu, I. Hardcastle, W. S. Lee, C. R. S. Fludger, A. Hadjifotiou, C. Li, D. Qiao, H. Sun, K. T. Wu, J. McNicol, "Experimental comparison of dispersion-managed fiber types in 16-channel 40 Gb/s 500 km (6 $\times$ 84.5 km) Raman-assisted transmission link," Proc. OFC (2002) pp. 557-558.

A. Bononi, A. Papararo, "Transient gain dynamics in saturated counter-pump Raman amplifiers," Proc. OFC (2002) pp. 511-512.

OptSim Rsoft Design Group, Inc http://www.rsoftdesign.com/products/system_simulation/OptSim/.

J. Bromage, L. E. Nelson, C. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, R. M. Jopson, "Relative impact of multiple-path interference and amplified spontaneous emission noise on optical receiver performance," Proc. OFC (2002) pp. 119-120.

P. J. Winzer, "Combined impact of double-Rayleigh backscatter and amplified spontaneous emission on receiver noise," Proc. OFC (2002) pp. 734-735.

S. N. Knudsen, D. W. Peckham, M. Ø. Pedersen, B. Zhu, A. F. Judy, L. E. Nelson, "New dispersion-slope managed fiber pairs for ultra long haul transmission systems," Proc. NFOEC (2001) pp. 1599-1607.

V. Curri, S. Tenenbaum, "Simultaneous optimization of hybrid fiber amplifiers and dispersion maps," Proc. OpNeTec (2004) pp. 332-339.

L. Fenghai, J. Bennike, S. Dey, C. Rasmussen, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, "1.6 Tb/s (40 $\times$ 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 3600 km UltraWave fiber with all-Raman amplified 100 km terrestrial spans using ETDM transmitter and receiver," Proc. OFC (2002) pp. FC7-1-FC7-3.

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