Abstract

This paper presents a synopsis of some of the advances in silica waveguide planar lightwave circuits (PLCs). It concentrates on silica PLCs for fiber-optic communications, mainly routing and signal processing devices. A significant portion is devoted to arrayed waveguide gratings.

© 2006 IEEE

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. K. Burns, A. F. Milton, A. B. Lee, "Optical waveguide parabolic coupling horns," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 28-30 (1977).

Electron Lett. (1)

Y. Hida, Y. Hibino, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, A. Sugita, A. Himeno, "400-channel arrayed-waveguide grating with 25 GHz spacing using 1.5%-$\Delta$ waveguides on 6-inch Si wafer," Electron Lett. 37, 576-577 (2001).

Electron. Lett. (18)

K. Okamoto, K. Moriwaki, S. Suzuki, "Fabrication of 64 $\times$ 64 arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer on silicon," Electron. Lett. 31, 184-185 (1995).

K. Okamoto, K. Syuto, H. Takahashi, Y. Ohmori, "Fabrication of 128-channel arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with a 25-GHz channel spacing," Electron. Lett. 32, 1474-1476 (1996).

T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, Y. Hibino, "Low chromatic-dispersion flat-top arrayed waveguide grating filter," Electron. Lett. 39, 1116-1118 (2003).

K. Okamoto, A. Sugita, "Flat spectral response arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with parabolic waveguide horns," Electron. Lett. 32, 1661-1662 (1996).

M. R. Amersfoort, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhei, C. Caneau, "Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers," Electron. Lett. 32, 449-451 (1996).

K. Maru, T. Chiba, M. Okawa, H. Ishikawa, K. Ohira, S. Sato, H. Uetsuka, "Low-loss arrayed-waveguide grating with high index regions at slab-to-array interface," Electron. Lett. 37, 1287-1289 (2001).

Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, F. Hanawa, H. Takahashi, K. Hattori, S. Sumida, "Athermal silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer," Electron. Lett. 33, 1945-1946 (1997).

J. B. D. Soole, M. Schlax, C. Narayanan, R. Pafchek, "Athermalisation of silica arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers," Electron. Lett. 39, 1182-1184 (2003).

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, K. Okamoto, "5 GHz-spaced 4200-channel two-stage tandem demultiplexer for ultra-multi-wavelength light source using supercontinuum generation," Electron. Lett. 38, 572-573 (2005).

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, K. Okamoto, "Three-stage ultra-high-density multi/demultiplexer covering low-loss fiber transmission window 1.26–1.63 $\mu\hbox{m}$," Electron. Lett. 38, 405-406 (2002).

A. Rigny, A. Bruno, H. Sik, "Multigrating method for flattened spectral response wavelength multi/demultiplexer," Electron. Lett. 33, 1701-1702 (1997).

K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Yamada, T. Goh, "Fabrication of frequency spectrum synthesiser consisting of arrayed-waveguide grating pair and thermo-optic amplitude and phase controllers," Electron. Lett. 35, 733-734 (1999).

S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, T. Morioka, O. Kamatani, M. Saruwatari, "200 Gb/s, 100 km time-division-multiplexed optical transmission using supercontinuum pulses with prescaled PLL timing extraction and all-optical demultiplexing," Electron. Lett. 31, 816-817 (1995).

K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, T. Kominato, H. Takahashi, T. Shibata, "Flexible pulse waveform generation using a silica waveguide-based spectrum synthesis circuit," Electron. Lett. 40, 537-538 (2004).

K. Okamoto, M. Okuno, A. Himeno, Y. Ohmori, "16-channel optical add/drop multiplexer consisting of arrayed-waveguide gratings and double-gate switches," Electron. Lett. 32, 1471-1472 (1996).

T. Saida, A. Kaneko, T. Goh, M. Okuno, A. Himeno, K. Takiguchi, K. Okamoto, "Athermal silica-based optical add/drop multiplexer consisting of arrayed waveguide gratings and double gate thermo-optical switches," Electron. Lett. 36, 528-529 (2000).

M. K. Smit, "New focusing and dispersive planar component based on an optical phased array," Electron. Lett. 24, 385-386 (1988).

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, K. Kato, I. Nishi, "Arrayed-waveguide grating for wavelength division multi/demultiplexer with nanometer resolution," Electron. Lett. 26, 87-88 (1990).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (3)

M. K. Smit, C. Van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design, and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).

L. Eldada, L. W. Shacklette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 54-68 (2000).

K. Takiguchi, K. Jinguji, K. Okamoto, Y. Ohmori, "Variable group-delay dispersion equalizer using lattice-form programmable optical filter on planar lightwave circuit," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 270-276 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (29)

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, S. Chandrasekhar, R. Pafchek, "Colorless tunable dispersion compensator with 400-ps/nm range integrated with a tunable noise filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1258-1260 (2003).

C. R. Doerr, R. Blum, L. L. Buhl, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, H. Bulthuis, "Colorless tunable optical dispersion compensator based on a silica arrayed-waveguide grating and a polymer thermooptic lens," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1222-1224 (2006).

C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, M. A. Cappuzzo, A. Wong-Foy, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, "Four-stage Mach–Zehnder-type tunable optical dispersion compensator with single-knob control," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2637-2639 (2005).

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, K. Okamoto, "10 GHz-spaced 1010-channel tandem AWG filter consisting of one primary and ten secondary AWGs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 577-578 (2001).

C. Dragone, C. A. Edwards, R. C. Kistler, "Integrated optics $N \times N$ multiplexer on silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 896-899 (1991).

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, J. Gates, M. Cappuzzo, E. Laskowski, L. Gomez, A. Paunescu, A. White, C. Narayanan, "Arrayed waveguide lens wavelength add-drop in silica," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 557-559 (1999).

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, K. Okamoto, "A 25-GHz-spaced 1080-channel tandem multi/demultiplexer covering the S-, C-, and L-bands using an arrayed-waveguide grating with Gaussian passbands as a primary filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 648-650 (2002).

R. Kasahara, M. Yanagisawa, A. Sugita, T. Goh, M. Yasu, A. Himeno, S. Matsui, "Low-power consumption silica-based 2 $\times$ 2 thermooptic switch using trenched silicon substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1132-1134 (1999).

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, M. Cappuzzo, E. Laskowski, A. Paunescu, L. Gomez, J. V. Gates, S. Shunk, A. E. White, "40-wavelength add-drop filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1437-1439 (1999).

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, R. Monnard, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, E. Laskowski, A. Paunescu, S. Shunk, O. A. Clarke, A. Bing, R. K. Vora, "40-wavelength planar channel-dropping filter with improved crosstalk," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1008-1010 (2001).

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, S. Shunk, "Compact and low-loss manner of waveguide grating router passband flattening and demonstration in a 64-channel blocker/multiplexer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 56-58 (2002).

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Paunescu, E. Laskowski, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Buhl, "2 $\times$ 2 wavelength-selective cross connect capable of switching 128 channels in sets of eight," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 387-389 (2002).

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, T. Murphy, "Eight-wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 138-140 (2003).

C. R. Doerr, M. Shirasaki, C. H. Joyner, "Chromatic focal plane displacement in the parabolic chirped waveguide grating router," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 625-627 (1997).

C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, "Double-chirping of the waveguide grating router," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 776-778 (1997).

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, K. Dreyer, L. Zhang, "Potentially low-cost widely tunable laser consisting of a semiconductor optical amplifier connected directly to a silica waveguide grating router," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1446-1448 (2003).

C. R. Doerr, R. Pafchek, L. W. Stulz, "16-band integrated dynamic gain equalization filter with less than 2.8-dB insertion loss," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 334-336 (2002).

C. R. Doerr, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, "Integrated WDM dynamic power equalizer with potentially low insertion loss," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1443-1445 (1998).

C. R. Doerr, R. Pafchek, L. W. Stulz, "Integrated band demultiplexer using waveguide grating routers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1088-1090 (2003).

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S. Chandrasekhar, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, "Flexible waveband optical networking without guard bands using novel 8-skip-0 banding filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 579-581 (2005).

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, E. Laskowski, A. Paunescu, L. Gomez, L. W. Stulz, J. Gates, "Dynamic wavelength equalizer in silica using the single-filtered-arm interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 581-583 (1999).

C. Dragone, "An $N \times N$ optical multiplexer using a planar arrangement of two star couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 812-815 (1991).

C. R. Doerr, "Beam propagation method tailored for step-index waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 130-132 (2001).

C. R. Doerr, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, "Low-loss rectangular-passband multiplexer consisting of a waveguide grating router synchronized to a three-arm interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2334-2336 (2005).

C. R. Doerr, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, L. L. Buhl, "Wide-band arrayed waveguide grating with three low-loss maxima per passband," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. .

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, "Compact and low-loss integrated box-like passband multiplexer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 918-920 (2003).

A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, Y. Ohmori, "Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180-1182 (2000).

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C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, C. Ho, J. Lam, K. McGreer, "Planar ligthwave circuit eight-channel CWDM multiplexer with $<$ 3.9-dB insertion loss," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 62-65 (2005).

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, R. Pafchek, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, E. Chen, E. Laskowski, G. Bogert, G. Richards, "Wavelength add-drop node using silica waveguide integration," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2755-2757 (2004).

C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, E. Burrows, "Simple multichannel optical equalizer mitigating intersymbol interference for 40-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 249-251 (2004).

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in silicon-on-insulator fabricated with CMOS technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).

C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, "Optical dispersion compensator suitable for use with non-wavelength-locked transmitters," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 166-170 (2006).

D. M. Marom, C. R. Doerr, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, L. T. Gomez, S. Chandrasekhar, "Compact colorless tunable dispersion compensator with 1000-ps/nm tuning range for 40-Gb/s data rates," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 237-241 (2006).

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