Abstract

This paper presents views on the future of optical networking. A historical look at the emergence of optical networking is first taken, followed by a discussion on the drivers pushing for a new and pervasive network, which is based on photonics and can satisfy the needs of a broadening base of residential, business, and scientific users. Regional plans and targets for optical networking are reviewed to understand which current approaches are judged important. Today, two thrusts are driving separate optical network infrastructure models, namely 1) the need by nations to provide a ubiquitous network infrastructure to support all the future services and telecommunication needs of residential and business users and 2) increasing demands by the scientific community for networks to support their requirements with respect to large-scale data transport and processing. This paper discusses these network models together with the key enabling technologies currently being considered for future implementation, including optical circuit, burst and packet switching, and optical code-division multiplexing. Critical subsystem functionalities are also reviewed. The discussion considers how these separate models might eventually merge to form a global optical network infrastructure.

© 2006 IEEE

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Gobby, Z. L. Yuan, A. J. Shields, "Quantum key distribution over 122 km of standard telecom fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3762-3764 (2004).

Commun. ACM (CACM) (1)

M. Brown, "Blueprint for the future of high performance networking," Commun. ACM (CACM) 46, 30-77 (2003) ASON.

Fibre Syst. (1)

T. Freeman, "DWDM platform set for 40 G deployment," Fibre Syst. 3, 23 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (3)

R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, "Large-scale photonic integrated circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 50-65 (2005).

K. Stubkjaer, "Semiconductor optical amplifier-based all-optical gates for high speed optical processing," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 1428 (2000).

V. Van, A. Ibrahin, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, P. Ho, "Optical signal processing using nonlinear semiconductor microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 705-713 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

T. Akiyama, "Application of spectral-hole burning in the inhomogeneously broadened gain of self-assembled quantum dots to a multi-channel nonlinear optical device," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1301-1303 (2000).

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, K. Tajima, "168 Gb/s all-optical wavelength conversion with a symmetric-Mach–Zehnder-type switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1091 (2001).

S. Pau, Y. Jianjun, K. Kojima, N. Chand, V. Swaminathan, "160-Gb/s all-optical MEMS time-slot switch for OTDM and WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1460-1462 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (12)

D. Simeonidou, R. Nejabati, G. Zervas, D. Klonidis, A. Tzanakaki, M. J. O'Mahony, "Dynamic optical network architectures and technologies for existing and emerging grid services," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3347-3357 (2005).

F. Xue, Z. Pan, H. Yang, J. Yang, J. Cao, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, V. Akella, S. J. B. Yoo, "Design and experimental demonstration of a variable-length optical packet routing system with unified contention resolution," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2570-2581 (2004).

E. Le Rouzic, S. Gosselin, "160 Gb/s optical networking: A prospective techno-economic analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3024-3033 (2005).

J. Zhou, R. Cadeddu, E. Casaccia, C. Cavazzoni, M. J. O'Mahony, "Crosstalk in multiwavelength optical cross-connect networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1423-1435 (1996).

R. E. Wagner, "Monet: Multiwavelength optical networking," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1349-1355 (1996).

A. Stavdas, S. Sygletos, M. O. Mahony, H. L. Lee, C. Matrakidis, A. Dupas, "IST-DAVID: Concept presentation and physical layer modelling of the metropolitan area network," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 372-384 (2003).

D. Klonidis, C. T. Politi, R. Nejabati, M. J. O'Mahony, D. Simeonidou, "OPSnet: Design and demonstration of an asynchronous high speed optical packet switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2914-2925 (2005).

K. Kitayama, T. Miki, T. Morioka, H. Tsushima, M. Koga, K. Mori, S. Araki, K. Sato, H. Onaka, S. Namiki, T. Aoyama, "Photonic network R&D activities in Japan—Current activities and future prospects," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3404-3418 (2005).

O. Lecrec, "Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2779-2790 (2003).

R. C. Mendez, P. Toliver, S. Galli, A. Agarwal, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, S. Etemad, "Network applications of cascaded code translation for WDM-compatible spectrally phase encoded optical CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3129-3231 (2006).

P. Koonath, T. Indukuri, B. Jalali, "Monolithic 3-D Silicon Photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1796-1804 (2006).

R. Varrazza, I. B. Djordjevic, Y. Siyuan, "Active vertical-coupler-based optical crosspoint switch matrix for optical packet-switching applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2034-2042 (2004).

Nature (1)

A. Argyris, D. Syvridis, L. Larger, V. Annovazzi-Lodi, P. Colet, I. Fischer, J. García-Ojalvo, C. R. Mirasso, L. Pesquera, K. A. Shore, "Chaos-based communications at high bit rates using commercial fibre-optic links," Nature 438, 343-346 (2005).

Other (34)

Y. Liu, E. Tangdiongga, Z. Li, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. J. S. Dorren, X. Shu, I. Bennion, "Error-free 320 Gb/s SOA-based wavelength conversion using optical filtering," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper PDP 28.

http://www.yokogawa.com.

http://www.glimmerglass.com.

N. Beheshti, Y. Ganjali, R. Rajaduray, D. Blumenthal, N. McKeown, "Buffer sizing in all-optical packet switches," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OThF8.

C. Chang-Hasnain, "Controlling light speed in semiconductors," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) GlasgowU.K. (2005) Paper Mo3.1.3.

D. T. Neilson, D. Stiliadis, P. Bernasconi, "Ultra-high capacity optical IP routers for the networks of tomorrow: IRIS project," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) GlasgowU.K. (2005) Paper We 1.1.4.

D. J Blumenthal, "LASOR (label switched optical router): Architecture and underlying integration technologies," Proc. ECOC (2005) pp. 49.

http://www.nlr.net/ess/index.html.

P. Freeman, "GENI: Global environment for networking innovations," Proc. Future Internet (2006).

J. Lin, J. Wu, "Optical networking testbeds in China," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OWU2.

L. Zong, P. Ji, T. Wang, O. Matsuda, M. Cvijetic, "Study on wavelength cross-connect realised with wavelength selective switches," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper NThC3.

R. Nejabati, D. Klonidis, G. Zervas, D. Simeonidou, M. O Mahony, "Demonstration of a complete and fully functional end-to-end asynchronous optical packet switched network," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OWP5.

J. Ryan, "An outlook for optical executatives," OSA Executative Program AnaheimCA (2006) www.osa.org/partner/network/program/Ryan%20John.pptAnaheimCA.

B. Fabianek, "Optical networking testbeds in Europe," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OWU1.

N. Larkin, ASON & GMPLS; The Battle for the Optical Control Plane http://www.dataconnection.com/network/download/whitepapers/asongmpls.pdf.

J. S. da Silva, "Broadband R&D in the context of convergence," Broadband Europe Conf. BordeauxFrance (2005) Paper M01.03.

J. J. Lepley, The Evolution of the Access Network: Options for Fibre Penetration Into the Access Network (MUSE Summer School Broadband Access Technol., 2005).

http://www.jb.man.ac.uk/news/evlbi/.

B. St. Arnaud, "Future internet issues," Proc. OECD ICCP Workshop (2006).

C. Cavazzoni, D. Colle, A. Di Giglio, G. Edwall, G. Eilenberger, G. Ferraris, H. Haunstein, S. Herbst, M. Jaeger, G. Lehmann, J. F. Lobo, A. Manzalini, S. Santoni, M. Schiano, "Evolution of optical transport networks in Europe: The NOBEL project vision," Broadband Europe Conf. BordeauxFrance (2005) Paper T04A.01 www.bbeurope.org.

P. Torab, V. Hutcheon, D. Walters, "Waveband switching efficiency in WDM networks: Analysis and case study," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) OTuG [Optical Network Architectures].

E. Hernandez-Valencia, H. Menendez, "Exploiting carrier Ethernet to deliver profitable new services," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper NTUD1.

D. Simeonidou, R. Nejabati, B. St. Arnaud, M. Beck, P. Clarke, B. Hoang, D. Hutchison, G. Karmous-Edwards, T. Lavian, J. Leigh, J. Mambretti, V. Sander, J. Strand, F. Travostino, Optical Network Infrastructure for Grid http://www.ggf.org/gf/docs/?final.

D. Payne, R. Davey, "Long reach access networks—Avoiding the bandwidth–price dilemma," Broadband Europe Conf. BrugesBelgium (2004) Paper T01A.02 GGF.

K. Kitayama, X. Wang, N. Wada, "A solution path to gigabit-symmetric FTTH: OCDMA over WDM PON," Broadband Europe Conf. BordeauxFrance (2005) paper T01A.02 http://www.bbeurope.org.

http://www.gridforum.org/.

http://www.uclp.ca/.

A. Sahara, R. Kasahara, E. Yamazaki, S. Aisawa, M. Koga, "The demonstration of congestion controlled optical burst switching network utilizing two-way signaling field trial in JGN II testbed," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2005) Paper OFA7.

H. Guo, Z. Lan, J. Wu, J. Lin, "A testbed for optical burst switching network," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2005) Paper OFA6.

http://www.matissenetworks.com/product.php.

H. N. Poulsen, D. Wolfson, S. Rangarajan, D. J. Blumenthal, "Burst mode 10 G optical header recovery and lookup processing for asynchronous variable length 40 G optical packet switching," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OFJ2.

X. Wang, N. Wada, "Demonstration of OCDMA traffic over optical packet switching networks with PLC and SSFBG en/decoders for time domain OC processing," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) GlasgowU.K. (2005) PDL We1.4.5.

D. Petrantonakis, G. T. Kanellos, P. Zakynthinos, N. Pleros, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, "A 40 Gb/s 3R burst-mode receiver with 4 integrated MZI switches," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper PDP 25.

G. Maxwell, R. McDougall, R. Harmon, M. Neild, L. Rivers, A. Poustie, "WDM-enabled, 40 GB/s hybrid integrated all-optical regenerator," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) GlasgowU.K. (2005) PDL 4.2.2.

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