Abstract

Large-scale photonic integrated circuits (LS PICs) have been extensively deployed throughout the fiber optic communication network. This paper discusses the properties of the LS PICs, the interaction between them, and what is necessary to create an optical transport system that fully utilizes the properties of the LS PIC.

© 2006 IEEE

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  1. Infinera Press ReleaseInfinera Extends Lead in 10Gig Long-Haul Market in Second Quarter: Digital Optical Networks Take 29% of Worldwide 10G LH DWDM Market (2006) Based on data from the independent analyst firm the Dell'Oro Group http://www.delloro.com/.
  2. R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, Jr.J. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. Dentai, V. Dominic, P. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. Miles, M. Mitchell, M. Missey, S. Murthy, A. Nilsson, F. Peters, S. Pennypacker, J. Pleumeekers, R. Salvatore, R. Schlenker, R. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. Grubb, M. Reffle, D. Mehuys, F. Kish, D. Welch, "Large-scale photonic integrated circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 50-65 (2005).
  3. S. E. Miller, "Integrated optics: An introduction," Bell Sys. Tech. J. 48, 2059-2069 (1969).
  4. R. C. Alferness, "Guided wave devices for optical communication," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 946-959 (1981).
  5. O. Wada, T. Sakurai, T. Nakagami, "Recent progress in optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs)," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 805-823 (1986).
  6. T. L. Koch, U. Koren, "Semiconductor photonic integrated circuits," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-27, 641-653 (1991).
  7. I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, P. M. Demeester, "A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III–V semiconductor devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1308-1320 (1997).
  8. Y. Kawamura, K. Wakita, Y. Yoshikuni, Y. Itaya, H. Asahi, "Packaged integrated transmitter driver chips (one optical port)," IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 915-918 (1987).
  9. H. Soda, M. Furutsu, K. Sato, N. Okazaki, Y. Yamazaki, H. Nishimoto, H. Ishikawa, "High-power and high-speed semi-insulating BH structure monolithic electroabsorption modulator/DFB laser light source," Electron. Lett. 26, 9-10 (1990).
  10. T. L. Koch, U. Koren, R. P. Gnall, C. A. Burrus, B. I. Miller, "Continuously tunable 1.5 $\mu\hbox{m}$ multiple-quantum-well InGaAs/InGaAsP distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers," Electron. Lett. 24, 1431-1432 (1988).
  11. B. Mason, G. A. Fish, S. P. DenBaars, S. P. Coldren, L. A. Coldren, "Ridge waveguide sampled grating DBR lasers with 22-nm quasi-continuous tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1211-1213 (1998).
  12. B. Mason, G. A. Fish, S. P. DenBaars, L. A. Coldren, "Widely tunable sampled grating DBR laser with integrated electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 638-640 (1999).
  13. J. E. Johnson, L. J.-P. Ketelsen, J. A. Grenko, S. K. Sputz, J. Vandenberg, M. W. Focht, D. V. Stampone, L. J. Peticolas, L. E. Smith, K. G. Glogovsky, G. J. Przybylek, S. N. G. Chu, J. L. Lentz, N. N. Tzafaras, C. L. Reynolds, L. A. Gruezke, R. People, M. A. Alam, "Monolithically integrated semiconductor optical amplifier and electroabsorption modulator with dual-waveguide spot-size converter input," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 19-25 (2000).
  14. B. Mason, J. Barton, G. A. Fish, S. P. DenBaars, S. P. Coldren, L. A. Coldren, "Design of sampled grating DBR lasers with integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 762-764 (2000).
  15. B. Pezeshki, E. Vail, J. Kubicky, G. Yoffe, S. Zou, J. Heanue, P. Epp, S. Rishton, D. Ton, B. Faraji, M. Emanuel, X. Hong, M. Sherback, V. Agrawal, C. Chipman, T. Razazan, "20-mW widely tunable laser module using DFB array and MEMS selection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1457-1459 (2002).
  16. D. Kuchta, Y. Kwark, C. Schuster, C. Baks, C. Haymes, J. Schaub, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Shan, R. John, D. Kucharski, D. Rogers, M. Ritter, "120 Gb/s VCSEL-based parallel optical link and custom 120 Gb/s testing station," Proc. 54th ECTC (2004) pp. 1003-1011.
  17. J. Simon, L. Buckman Windover, S. Rosenau, K. Giboney, B. Law, G. Flower, L. Mirkarimi, A. Grot, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. Rankin, R. Gruhlke, "Parallel optical interconnect at 10 Gb/s per channel," Proc. 54th ECTC (2004) pp. 1016-1023.
  18. M. G. Young, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. A. Newkirk, M. Chien, M. Zirngibl, C. Dragone, B. Tell, H. M. Presby, G. Raybon, "A 16$\times$1 wavelength division multiplexer with integrated distributed Bragg reflector lasers and electroabsorption modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 908-910 (1993).
  19. K. Kudo, K. Yashiki, T. Sasaki, Y. Yokoyama, K. Hamamoto, T. Morimoto, M. Yamaguchi, "1.55-$\mu\hbox{m}$ wavelength-selectable microarray DFB-LD's with monolithically integrated MMI combiner, SOA, and EA-modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 242-244 (2000).
  20. M. K. Smit, C. van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).
  21. M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, "A 12 frequency WDM laser source based on transmissive waveguide grating router," Electron. Lett. 30, 700-701 (1994).
  22. A. M. Staring, L. H. Spiekman, J. J. M. Binsma, E. J. Jansen, T. van Dongen, P. J. A. Thijs, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, "A compact nine-channel multiwavelength laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1139-1141 (1996).
  23. S. Menezo, A. Talneau, F. Delorme, S. Grosmaire, F. Gaborit, S. Slempkes, "10-wavelength 200-GHz channel spacing emitter integrating DBR lasers with a PHASAR on InP for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 785-787 (1999).
  24. M. R. Amersfoort, C. R. de Boer, B. H. Verbeek, P. Demeester, A. Looyen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, "Low-loss phased-array based 4-channel wavelength demultiplexer integrated with photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 62-64 (1994).
  25. M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, "WDM receiver by monolithic integration of an optical preamplifier, waveguide grating router and photodiode array," Electron. Lett. 31, 581-582 (1995).
  26. C. A. M. Steenbergen, C. van Dam, A. Looijen, C. G. P. Herben, M. de Kok, M. K. Smit, J. W. Pedersen, I. Moerman, R. G. F. Baets, B. H. Verbeek, "Compact low-loss 8 $\times$ 10 GHz polarisation independent WDM receiver," 22nd Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) OsloNorway (1996) Paper Mo C4.1.
  27. M. Kohtoku, H. Sanjoh, S. Oku, Y. Kadota, Y. Yoshikuni, "Packaged polarization insensitive WDM monitor with low loss (7.3 dB) and wide tuning range (4.5 nm)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1614-1617 (1998).
  28. R. Mestric, "Sixteen-channel wavelength selector monolithically integrated on InP," Proc. Opt. Fiber Conf. (2000) pp. 81-83.
  29. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, "Photonic integrated circuits for multiwavelength networks," Proc. Int. Conf. Appl. Photon. Technol. (1998) pp. 74-79.
  30. Y. Suzaki, K. Asaka, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, Y. Noguchi, S. Kondo, R. Iga, H. Okamota, "Multi-channel modulation in a DWDM monolithic photonic integrated circuit," Proc. 14th Indium Phosphide and Related Mater. Conf. (2002) pp. 681-683.
  31. C. Joyner, J. Pleumeekers, A. Mathur, P. Evans, D. Lambert, S. Murthy, S. Hurtt, F. Peters, J. Baeck, M. Missey, A. Dentai, R. Salvatore, R. Schneider, Jr.M. Ziari, M. Kato, R. Nagarajan, J. Bostak, T. Butrie, V. Dominic, M. Kauffman, R. Miles, M. Mitchell, A. Nilsson, S. Pennypacker, R. Schlenker, R. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. Grubb, M. Reffle, D. Mehuys, F. Kish, D. Welch, "Large-scale DWDM photonic integrated circuits: A manufacturable and scalable integration platform," Laser Electro-Optics Society Conf. (LEOS) SydneyAustralia (2005).
  32. Data Assembled From Private Communications With Personnel From Companies Shipping Commercial Products Based on Each of These Materials Technologies .
  33. S. Melle, "Network planning and economic analysis of an innovative new optical transport architecture," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf./National Fiber Optic Engineer’s Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) AnaheimCA (2005) Paper NTuA1.
  34. Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF) Standards UNI 1.0 Release 2.
  35. ITU-T standards G.8080Automatically Switched Optical Networks (ASON) and G.807, Automatically Switched Transport Networks (ASTN) UNI 1.0 Release 2.

Bell Sys. Tech. J. (1)

S. E. Miller, "Integrated optics: An introduction," Bell Sys. Tech. J. 48, 2059-2069 (1969).

Electron. Lett. (4)

H. Soda, M. Furutsu, K. Sato, N. Okazaki, Y. Yamazaki, H. Nishimoto, H. Ishikawa, "High-power and high-speed semi-insulating BH structure monolithic electroabsorption modulator/DFB laser light source," Electron. Lett. 26, 9-10 (1990).

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, R. P. Gnall, C. A. Burrus, B. I. Miller, "Continuously tunable 1.5 $\mu\hbox{m}$ multiple-quantum-well InGaAs/InGaAsP distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers," Electron. Lett. 24, 1431-1432 (1988).

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, "A 12 frequency WDM laser source based on transmissive waveguide grating router," Electron. Lett. 30, 700-701 (1994).

M. Zirngibl, C. H. Joyner, L. W. Stulz, "WDM receiver by monolithic integration of an optical preamplifier, waveguide grating router and photodiode array," Electron. Lett. 31, 581-582 (1995).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

R. C. Alferness, "Guided wave devices for optical communication," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 946-959 (1981).

O. Wada, T. Sakurai, T. Nakagami, "Recent progress in optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs)," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 805-823 (1986).

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, "Semiconductor photonic integrated circuits," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-27, 641-653 (1991).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (4)

I. Moerman, P. P. Van Daele, P. M. Demeester, "A review on fabrication technologies for the monolithic integration of tapers with III–V semiconductor devices," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1308-1320 (1997).

J. E. Johnson, L. J.-P. Ketelsen, J. A. Grenko, S. K. Sputz, J. Vandenberg, M. W. Focht, D. V. Stampone, L. J. Peticolas, L. E. Smith, K. G. Glogovsky, G. J. Przybylek, S. N. G. Chu, J. L. Lentz, N. N. Tzafaras, C. L. Reynolds, L. A. Gruezke, R. People, M. A. Alam, "Monolithically integrated semiconductor optical amplifier and electroabsorption modulator with dual-waveguide spot-size converter input," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 19-25 (2000).

R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, Jr.J. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. Dentai, V. Dominic, P. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. Miles, M. Mitchell, M. Missey, S. Murthy, A. Nilsson, F. Peters, S. Pennypacker, J. Pleumeekers, R. Salvatore, R. Schlenker, R. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. Grubb, M. Reffle, D. Mehuys, F. Kish, D. Welch, "Large-scale photonic integrated circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 50-65 (2005).

M. K. Smit, C. van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM-devices: Principles, design and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 236-250 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (10)

A. M. Staring, L. H. Spiekman, J. J. M. Binsma, E. J. Jansen, T. van Dongen, P. J. A. Thijs, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, "A compact nine-channel multiwavelength laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1139-1141 (1996).

S. Menezo, A. Talneau, F. Delorme, S. Grosmaire, F. Gaborit, S. Slempkes, "10-wavelength 200-GHz channel spacing emitter integrating DBR lasers with a PHASAR on InP for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 785-787 (1999).

M. R. Amersfoort, C. R. de Boer, B. H. Verbeek, P. Demeester, A. Looyen, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, "Low-loss phased-array based 4-channel wavelength demultiplexer integrated with photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 62-64 (1994).

M. Kohtoku, H. Sanjoh, S. Oku, Y. Kadota, Y. Yoshikuni, "Packaged polarization insensitive WDM monitor with low loss (7.3 dB) and wide tuning range (4.5 nm)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1614-1617 (1998).

M. G. Young, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. A. Newkirk, M. Chien, M. Zirngibl, C. Dragone, B. Tell, H. M. Presby, G. Raybon, "A 16$\times$1 wavelength division multiplexer with integrated distributed Bragg reflector lasers and electroabsorption modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 908-910 (1993).

K. Kudo, K. Yashiki, T. Sasaki, Y. Yokoyama, K. Hamamoto, T. Morimoto, M. Yamaguchi, "1.55-$\mu\hbox{m}$ wavelength-selectable microarray DFB-LD's with monolithically integrated MMI combiner, SOA, and EA-modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 242-244 (2000).

B. Mason, J. Barton, G. A. Fish, S. P. DenBaars, S. P. Coldren, L. A. Coldren, "Design of sampled grating DBR lasers with integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 762-764 (2000).

B. Pezeshki, E. Vail, J. Kubicky, G. Yoffe, S. Zou, J. Heanue, P. Epp, S. Rishton, D. Ton, B. Faraji, M. Emanuel, X. Hong, M. Sherback, V. Agrawal, C. Chipman, T. Razazan, "20-mW widely tunable laser module using DFB array and MEMS selection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1457-1459 (2002).

B. Mason, G. A. Fish, S. P. DenBaars, S. P. Coldren, L. A. Coldren, "Ridge waveguide sampled grating DBR lasers with 22-nm quasi-continuous tuning range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1211-1213 (1998).

B. Mason, G. A. Fish, S. P. DenBaars, L. A. Coldren, "Widely tunable sampled grating DBR laser with integrated electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 638-640 (1999).

IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Kawamura, K. Wakita, Y. Yoshikuni, Y. Itaya, H. Asahi, "Packaged integrated transmitter driver chips (one optical port)," IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 915-918 (1987).

Other (12)

D. Kuchta, Y. Kwark, C. Schuster, C. Baks, C. Haymes, J. Schaub, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Shan, R. John, D. Kucharski, D. Rogers, M. Ritter, "120 Gb/s VCSEL-based parallel optical link and custom 120 Gb/s testing station," Proc. 54th ECTC (2004) pp. 1003-1011.

J. Simon, L. Buckman Windover, S. Rosenau, K. Giboney, B. Law, G. Flower, L. Mirkarimi, A. Grot, C.-K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. Rankin, R. Gruhlke, "Parallel optical interconnect at 10 Gb/s per channel," Proc. 54th ECTC (2004) pp. 1016-1023.

Infinera Press ReleaseInfinera Extends Lead in 10Gig Long-Haul Market in Second Quarter: Digital Optical Networks Take 29% of Worldwide 10G LH DWDM Market (2006) Based on data from the independent analyst firm the Dell'Oro Group http://www.delloro.com/.

R. Mestric, "Sixteen-channel wavelength selector monolithically integrated on InP," Proc. Opt. Fiber Conf. (2000) pp. 81-83.

S. Oei, M. K. Smit, "Photonic integrated circuits for multiwavelength networks," Proc. Int. Conf. Appl. Photon. Technol. (1998) pp. 74-79.

Y. Suzaki, K. Asaka, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Oku, Y. Noguchi, S. Kondo, R. Iga, H. Okamota, "Multi-channel modulation in a DWDM monolithic photonic integrated circuit," Proc. 14th Indium Phosphide and Related Mater. Conf. (2002) pp. 681-683.

C. Joyner, J. Pleumeekers, A. Mathur, P. Evans, D. Lambert, S. Murthy, S. Hurtt, F. Peters, J. Baeck, M. Missey, A. Dentai, R. Salvatore, R. Schneider, Jr.M. Ziari, M. Kato, R. Nagarajan, J. Bostak, T. Butrie, V. Dominic, M. Kauffman, R. Miles, M. Mitchell, A. Nilsson, S. Pennypacker, R. Schlenker, R. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. Grubb, M. Reffle, D. Mehuys, F. Kish, D. Welch, "Large-scale DWDM photonic integrated circuits: A manufacturable and scalable integration platform," Laser Electro-Optics Society Conf. (LEOS) SydneyAustralia (2005).

Data Assembled From Private Communications With Personnel From Companies Shipping Commercial Products Based on Each of These Materials Technologies .

S. Melle, "Network planning and economic analysis of an innovative new optical transport architecture," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf./National Fiber Optic Engineer’s Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) AnaheimCA (2005) Paper NTuA1.

Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF) Standards UNI 1.0 Release 2.

ITU-T standards G.8080Automatically Switched Optical Networks (ASON) and G.807, Automatically Switched Transport Networks (ASTN) UNI 1.0 Release 2.

C. A. M. Steenbergen, C. van Dam, A. Looijen, C. G. P. Herben, M. de Kok, M. K. Smit, J. W. Pedersen, I. Moerman, R. G. F. Baets, B. H. Verbeek, "Compact low-loss 8 $\times$ 10 GHz polarisation independent WDM receiver," 22nd Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) OsloNorway (1996) Paper Mo C4.1.

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