Abstract

Photonic crystals, in which the refractive index changes periodically, provide an exciting new tool for the manipulation of photons and have received keen interest from a variety of fields. This paper reviews the recent progress and future prospects of photonic crystals and their applications to photonic-nanostructure devices.

© 2006 IEEE

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Adv. Mater.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, C. O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, "Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D $\hbox{SiO}_{2}/\hbox{SiN}_{\rm x}$ photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 15, 1214-1218 (2003).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Fujita, T. Ueno, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, N. Shimoji, "Reduction of operating voltage in organic light-emitting diode by corrugated photonic crystal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5769-5771 (2004).

T. Asano, K. Kiyota, D. Kumamoto, B. S. Song, S. Noda, "Time-domain measurement of picosecond light-pulse propagation in a two-dimensional photonic crystal-slab waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4690-4692 (2004).

Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, B. S. Song, S. Noda, "Theoretical investigation of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with truncated cone air holes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1661-1663 (2003).

S. Takayama, H. Kitagawa, T. Asano, Y. Tanaka, S. Noda, "Experimental demonstration of complete photonic band gap in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061107 (2005).

A. Chutinan, M. Okano, S. Noda, "Wider bandwidth with high transmission through waveguide bends in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1698-1700 (2002).

H. Takano, Y. Akahane, T. Asano, S. Noda, "In-plane-type channel drop filter in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2226-2228 (2004).

E. Miyai, M. Okano, M. Mochizuki, S. Noda, "Analysis of coupling between two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide and external waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3729-3731 (2002).

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, S. Noda, "Investigation of high-Q channel drop filters using donor-type defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1512-1514 (2003).

A. Chutinan, M. Mochizuki, M. Imada, S. Noda, "Surface-emitting channel drop filters using single defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2690-2692 (2001).

D. Mori, T. Baba, "Dispersion-controlled optical group delay device by chirped photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1101-1103 (2004).

A. Sugitatsu, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Characterization of line-defect-waveguide lasers in two-dimensional photonic-crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5395-5397 (2004).

Y. Arakawa, H. Sakaki, "Multidimensional quantum well laser and temperature dependence of its threshold current," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 939-941 (1982).

A. Chutinan, S. Noda, "Highly confined waveguides and waveguide bends in three-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3739-3741 (1999).

M. Imada, L. H. Lee, M. Okano, S. Kawashima, S. Noda, "Development of three-dimensional photonic-crystal waveguides at optical-communication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171 107 (2006).

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, G. Sasaki, "Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316-318 (1999).

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999).

M. Notomi, H. Suzuki, T. Tamamura, "Directional lasing oscillation of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers at several photonic band gaps," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1325-1327 (2001).

Electron. Lett.

K. Kounoike, M. Yamaguchi, M. Fujita, T. Asano, J. Nakanishi, S. Noda, "Investigation of spontaneous emission from quantum dots embedded in two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab," Electron. Lett. 41, 1402-1403 (2005).

D. Ohnishi, K. Sakai, M. Imada, S. Noda, "Continuous wave operation of surface emitting two-dimensional photonic crystal laser," Electron. Lett. 39, 612-614 (2003).

A. Sugitatsu, S. Noda, "Room temperature operation of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab defect-waveguide-laser with optical pump," Electron. Lett. 39, 213-215 (2003).

T. Asano, W. Kunishi, M. Nakamura, B. S. Song, S. Noda, "Dynamic wavelength tuning of channel-drop device in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab," Electron. Lett. 41, 37-38 (2005).

T. Baba, M. Shiga, K. Inoshita, F. Koyama, "Carrier plasma shift in GaInAsP photonic crystal point defect cavity," Electron. Lett. 39, 1516-1518 (2003).

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, I. Yokohama, "Singlemode transmission within photonic bandgap of width-varied single-line-defect photonic crystal waveguides on SOI substrates," Electron. Lett. 37, 293-295 (2001).

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 $\mu\hbox{m}$ square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres," Electron. Lett. 38, 1669-1670 (2002).

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, J. Yonekura, "Observation of light propagation in photonic crystal optical waveguides with bends," Electron. Lett. 35, 654-655 (1999).

M. Fujita, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohhata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, N. Shimoji, "Organic light-emitting diode with ITO/organic photonic crystal," Electron. Lett. 39, 1750-1752 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

K. Sakai, D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, T. Sakaguchi, S. Noda, "Lasing band-edge identification for a surface-emitting photonic crystal laser," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1335-1340 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

A. Ashkin, "History of optical trapping and manipulation of small-neutral particle, atoms, and molecules," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 841-856 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Kawakami, T. Sato, K. Miura, Y. Ohtera, T. Kawashima, H. Ohkubo, "3-D photonic-crystal heterostructures: Fabrication and in-line resonator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 816-818 (2003).

IEICE Trans. Electron.

M. Yokoyama, S. Noda, "Finite-difference time-domain simulation of two-dimensional photonic crystal surface-emitting laser having a square-lattice slab structure," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C, 386-392 (2004).

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, K. Kanamoto, Y. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, H. Nakamura, K. Inoue, H. Sakai, Y. Watanabe, K. Ishida, H. Ishikawa, K. Asakawa, "Two dimensional semiconductor-based photonic crystal slab waveguides for ultra-fast optical signal processing devices," IEICE Trans. Electron. 87C, 316-327 (2004).

A. Gomyo, J. Ushida, M. Shirane, M. Tokushima, H. Yamada, "Low optical loss connection for photonic crystal slab waveguides," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C, 328-335 (2004).

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Kogelnik, C. V. Shank, "Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327-2335 (1972).

Y. Nabetani, T. Ishikawa, S. Noda, A. Sasaki, "Initial growth stage and optical properties of a three-dimensional InAs structure on GaAs," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 347-351 (1994).

J. Lightw. Technol.

Y. Fink, D. J. Ripin, S. H. Fan, C. P. Chen, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, "Guiding optical light in air using an all-dielectric structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2039-2041 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys.

E. Miyai, S. Noda, "Structural dependence of coupling between a two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide and a wire waveguide," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 21, 67-72 (2004).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

S. Noda, N. Yamamoto, A. Sasaki, "New realization method for three-dimensional photonic crystal in optical wavelength region," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L909-L912 (1996).

A. Yokoo, H. Suzuki, M. Notomi, "Organic photonic crystal band edge laser fabricated by direct nanoprinting," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4009-4011 (2004).

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Direct fabrication of photonic crystal on glass substrate by nanoimprint lithography," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L210-L212 (2006).

K. Orita, S. Tamura, T. Takizawa, T. Ueda, M. Yuri, S. Takigawa, D. Ueda, "High-extraction-efficiency blue light-emitting diode using extended-pitch photonic crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5809-5813 (2004).

Nat. Mater.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nat. Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).

K. Aoki, H. T. Miyazaki, H. Hirayama, K. Inoshita, T. Baba, K. Sakoda, N. Shinya, Y. Aoyagi, "Microassembly of semiconductor three-dimensional photonic crystals," Nat. Mater. 2, 117-121 (2003).

M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).

Nature

M. Qi, E. Lidorikis, P. T. Rakich, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, H. I. Smith, "A three-dimensional optical photonic crystal with designed point defects," Nature 429, 538-542 (2004).

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, "Photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light," Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).

S. Noda, A. Chutinan, M. Imada, "Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic band gap structure," Nature 407, 608-610 (2000).

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, S. Noda, "Lasers producing tailored beams," Nature 441, 946 (2006).

Opt. Express

S. J. McNab, N. Moll, Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 11, 2927-2939 (2003).

Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, K. Inoue, "Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length," Opt. Express 12, 1090-1096 (2004).

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, S. Noda, "Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 13, 1202-1214 (2005).

T. Asano, B. S. Song, S. Noda, "Analysis of the experimental Q factors ($\sim\!$1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006).

H. Takano, B. S. Song, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Highly efficient multi-channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal," Opt. Express 14, 3491-3496 (2006).

P. I. Borel, A. Harpoth, L. H. Frandsen, M. Kristensen, P. Shi, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund, "Topology optimization and fabrication of photonic crystal structures," Opt. Express 12, 1996-2001 (2004).

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, H. Y. Ryu, "Waveguides, resonators and their coupled elements in photonic crystal slabs," Opt. Express 12, 1551-1561 (2004).

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, T. Tanabe, "Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities," Opt. Express 13, 2678-2687 (2005).

D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, M. Imada, S. Noda, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of a surface-emitting two-dimensional photonic crystal diode laser," Opt. Express 12, 1562-1568 (2004).

S. H. Kwon, S. H. Kim, S. K. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. B. Kim, "Small, low-loss heterogeneous photonic bandedge laser," Opt. Express 12, 5356-5361 (2004).

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

T. Tanaka, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Asano, N. Yamamoto, "Ultra-short pulse propagation in 3-D GaAs photonic crystals," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 37-43 (2002).

Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter

K. Inoue, N. Kawai, Y. Sugimoto, N. Carlsson, N. Ikeda, K. Asakawa, "Observation of small group velocity in two-dimensional AlGaAs-based photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 65, 121 308 (2002).

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 58, R10096-R10099 (1998).

M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 62, 10 696-10 705 (2000).

M. Okano, S. Kako, S. Noda, "Coupling between a point-defect cavity and a line-defect waveguide in three-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 68, 235 110 (2003).

M. Imada, A. Chutinan, S. Noda, M. Mochizuki, "Multidirectionally distributed feedback photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 65, 195 306 (2002).

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, L. Ramunno, "Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 72, 161318 (2005).

A. Chutinan, S. Noda, "Waveguides and waveguide bends in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 62, 4488-4492 (2000).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, "Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152-3155 (1990).

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253 902 (2001).

Science

S. Ogawa, M. Imada, S. Yoshimoto, M. Okano, S. Noda, "Control of light emission by 3-D photonic crystals," Science 305, 227-229 (2004).

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals," Science 308, 1296-1298 (2005).

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, F. Capasso, "Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser," Science 302, 1374-1377 (2003).

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, M. Mochizuki, "Polarization mode control of two-dimensional photonic crystal laser by unit cell structure design," Science 293, 1123-1125 (2001).

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O'Brien, P. D. Dapkus, I. Kim, "Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, A. Chutinan, "Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths," Science 289, 604-606 (2000).

E. Yablonovitch, "How to be truly photonic," Science 289, 557-559 (2000).

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, "Photonic devices based on in-plane heterophotonic crystals," Science 300, 1537 (2003).

Other

Roadmap on Photonic Crystals (Kluwer, 2003).

M. Tabuchi, S. Noda, A. Sasaki, Science and Technology of Mesoscopic Structures (Springer-Verlag, 1992) pp. 379-384.

T. Tanaka, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Asano, N. Yamamoto, "Ultra-short pulse propagation in 3D GaAs photonic crystal," Int. Workshop Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structure (PESC-II) Technical Digest (2000) Paper W4-14.

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