Abstract

A vertical-cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) was invented 30 years ago. A lot of unique features can be expected, such as low-power consumption, wafer-level testing, small packaging capability, and so on. The market of VCSELs has been growing up rapidly in recent years, and they are now key devices in local area networks using multimode optical fibers. Also, long wavelength VCSELs are currently attracting much interest for use in single-mode fiber metropolitan area and wide area network applications. In addition, a VCSEL-based disruptive technology enables various consumer applications such as a laser mouse and laser printers. In this paper, the recent advance of VCSEL photonics will be reviewed, which include the wavelength extension of single-mode VCSELs and their wavelength integration/control. Also, this paper explores the potential and challenges for new functions of VCSELs toward optical signal processing.

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N. Nishiyama, S. Sato, T. Miyamoto, T. Takahashi, N. Jikutani, M. Arai, A. Matsutani, F. Koyama, K. Iga, "First CW operation of 1.26 $\mu\hbox{m}$ electrically pumped MOCVD grown GaInNAs/GaAs VCSEL," IEEE Int. Semiconductor Laser Conf. (ISLC) MontereyCA (2000) Postdeadline Paper PD-1.

T. Kondo, M. Arai, T. Miyamoto, F. Koyama, "Highly strained GaInAs/GaAs 1.13 $\mu\hbox{m}$ vertical cavity surface emitting laser with uncooled single mode operation," 16th Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS) TucsonAZ (2003) WD2.

K. Hasebe, F. Koyama, N. Nishiyama, C. Caneau, C. E. Zah, "All-optical polarization controller using elliptical-apertured 1.5 $\mu\hbox{m}$ VCSEL," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics Long BeachCA (2006) Paper CWP1.

X. Zhao, P. Palinginis, B. Pesala, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. Hemmer, "Room temperature tunable ultraslow light in 1550 nm VCSEL amplifier," Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) GlasgowU.K. (2005) Postdeadline paper, Th4.3.6.

S. Suda, F. Koyama, N. Nishiyama, C. Caneau, C. E. Zah, "Optical phase shifter using vertical microcavity with saturable absorber," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics Long BeachCA (2006) Paper CWK3.

J. K. Kash, F. E. Doany, L. Schares, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, J. L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hedge, H. Nyikal, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. Bour, M. R. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, "Chip-to-chip optical interconnects," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OFA3.

D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, Y. Kwark, "VCSEL modulation at 20 Gb/s over 200 m of multimode fiber using a 3.3 V SiGe laser driver IC," LEOS Summer Topical Meeting Copper MountainCO (2001) Paper WA1.2.

M. Suzuki, H. Hatakeyama, K. Fukatsu, T. Anan, K. Yashiki, M. Tsuji, "25-Gb/s operation of 1.1 $\mu\hbox{m}$-range InGaAs VCSELs for high-speed optical interconnections," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2006) OFA4.

W. Janto, K. Hasebe, N. Nishiyama, C. Caneau, T. Sakaguchi, A. Matsutani, P. Babu Dayal, F. Koyama, C. E. Zah, "Athermal operation of 1.55 $\mu\hbox{m}$ InP-based VCSEL with thermally-actuated cantilever structure," IEEE Int. Semiconductor Laser Conf. WaikoloaHI (2006) PD1.1.

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