Abstract

Electrical tuning and mode locking of an external-cavity semiconductor laser with an ultrashort (0.4 mm) fiber-Bragg-grating (FBG) reflector are studied theoretically and experimentally. Evolution of electrical tuning of longitudinal modes in a laser with broad-bandwidth FBG is analyzed theoretically. Tuning over an 11.4-nm range was experimentally possible by mechanically changing the connectorized FBG reflector in the external cavity of a diode laser package. With a 40%-reflection FBG, the external cavity laser was mode locked and generated at < 50-ps optical pulses at (6.3 ± 0.3) GHz within a broad frequency range of 600 MHz. The authors have simulated the intensity-modulation response of this laser and have shown that the broad frequency range mode locking of these lasers is determined by a chirp-related resonance rather than an external cavity resonance. The theoretical analysis agrees with the experimental results.

© 2006 IEEE

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Hu, A. Gubenko, G. Venus, I. Gadjiev, N. Il'inskaja, S. Nesterov, E. Portnoi, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, "Gain switching of an external cavity grating-coupled surface emitting laser with wide tunability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4236-4237 (2003).

S. P. Yam, C. Shu, "An extended external cavity for the generation of tunable multi-wavelength pulses from a self-seeded laser diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3347-3349 (1997).

Electron. Lett. (8)

R. J. Campbell, J. R. Armitage, G. Sherlock, D. L. Williams, R. Payne, M. Robertson, R. Wyatt, "Wavelength stable uncooled semiconductor laser for use in an all optical WDM access network," Electron. Lett. 32, 119-120 (1996).

R. Kashyap, P. F. Mckee, D. Armes, "UV written reflection gratings structures in photosensitive optical fibres using phase-shifted phase masks," Electron. Lett. 30, 1977-1978 (1994).

F. N. Timofeev, I. A. Kostko, P. Bayvel, O. Berger, R. Wyatt, R. Kashyap, I. F. Lealman, G. D. Maxwell, "10 Gb/s directly modulated, high temperature-stability external fibre grating laser for dense WDM networks," Electron. Lett. 35, 1737-1739 (1999).

C.-Y. Tsai, C.-Y. Tsai, "Effects of carrier heating on the frequency chirping of semiconductor lasers," Electron. Lett. 33, 2043-2045 (1997).

D. M. Bird, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, R. M. A. Fatah, K. H. Cameron, "Narrow line semiconductor laser using fibre grating," Electron. Lett. 27, 1115-1116 (1991).

S. P. Reilly, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Tunable and switchable dual wavelength lasers using optical fiber Bragg grating external cavities," Electron. Lett. 38, 1033-1034 (2002).

P. J. S. Heim, S. A. Merrit, Z. F. Fan, M. Dagenais, R. Leavitt, "Single-angled-facet laser diode for tunable external cavity lasers," Electron. Lett. 33, 1387-1389 (1997).

R. Kashyap, R. A. Payne, T. J. Whitley, G. Sherlock, "Wavelength-uncommitted lasers," Electron. Lett. 30, 1065-1066 (1994).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Zhai, A. J. Lowery, Z. Ahmed, "Locking bandwidth of actively mode-locked semiconductor lasers using fiber-grating external cavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1998-2005 (1995).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (4)

F. Pittoni, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, "Time-domain analysis of fiber grating semiconductor laser operation in active mode-locking regime," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 280-286 (2001).

M. Premaratne, A. J. Lowery, Z. Ahmed, D. Novak, "Modeling noise and modulation performance of fiber grating external cavity lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 290-303 (1997).

Z. Ahmed, R. S. Tucker, "Small-signal IM response of grating-terminated external cavity semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 505-515 (1995).

A. J. Lowery, "A time-domain model for high-speed quantum-well lasers including carrier transport effects," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 494-504 (1995).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

L. P. Barry, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, J. D. Harvey, "Characterization of 1.55 µm pulses from a self-seeded gain-switched Fabry–Pérot laser diode using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 935-937 (1998).

S.-D. Cho, C.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Shin, "Limit of optical pulsewidth in the gain-switched DFB semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 782-784 (1999).

R. Paoletti, D. Bertone, R. Fang, G. Magnetti, M. Meliga, G. Meneghini, G. Morello, G. Rossi, L. Tallone, M. Scofet, "1.55-µm optical short pulse generation at 10-GHz repetition rate, using a mode-locked hybrid distributed Bragg reflector (ML-HDBR) laser source," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 245-247 (2000).

P. A. Morton, V. Mizrahi, P. A. Andrekson, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, P. Lemaire, D. L. Coblentz, A. M. Sergent, K. W. Wecht, P. F. Sciortino, Jr."Mode-locked hybrid soliton pulse source with extremely wide operating frequency range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 28-31 (1993).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. A. Tarakanov, D. S. Ilyushenkov, V. M. Chistyakov, M. A. Odnoblyudov, S. A. Gurevich, "Picosecond pulse generation by internal gain switching in laser diodes," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2223-2229 (2004).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. (1)

R. Leners, P. Emplit, D. Foursa, M. Haelterman, R. Kashyap, "6.1-GHz dark-soliton generation and propagation by a fiber Bragg grating pulse-shaping technique," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 14, 2339-2347 (1997).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. (1)

Y. C. Chan, M. Premaratne, A. J. Lowery, "Semiconductor laser linewidth from the transmission-line laser model," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. 144, 246-252 (1997).

Special Issue Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

F. Timofeev, S. A. Gurevich, M. Shatalov, R. Kashyap, R. Wyatt, I. Lealman, P. Bayvel, "Experimental and theoretical study of high temperature stability and low-chirp 1, 55 µm semiconductor laser with an external fibre grating," Special Issue Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 327-353 (2000) and references therein.

Other (7)

R. Paoletti, M. Meliga, G. Olivetti, M. Puleo, G. Rossi, L. Senepa, "10 Gb/s ultra-low chirp 1.55 µm directly-modulated hybrid fiber grating-semiconductor laser source," Proc. ECOC (1997) pp. 107-110.

O. L. Quan, Y. T. Seng, L. P. Lan, J. T. K. Wah, A. T. Sabaratnam, G. M. Hedge, A. Selvarajan, "External-cavity semiconductor laser sensor," Proc. SPIE—Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. (1999) pp. 692-699.

A. Bergonzo, J. David, J. Landreau, E. Gohin, R. Brenot, O. Durand, H. D. Guang, J. Jacquet, "Over 27 nm tuning range by modelocking of external cavity laser including a linearly chirped fiber Bragg grating," IEEE 18th Int. Semicond. Laser Conf. (2002) Paper TuB6.

M. Duelk, H. Melchior, W. Hunziker, L. Tallone, "Short pulse and low noise actively mode-locked 10 GHz semiconductor laser with a fiber Bragg grating external cavity," Proc. Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. Tech. Dig. Series (2001) pp. WDD76/1-WDD76/3.

I. A. Kostko, F. N. Timofeev, R. Wyatt, R. Kashyap, I. F. Lealman, "Modulation bandwidth of high-speed, directly-modulated semiconductor laser with detuned external fibre grating reflector," Proc. Conf. LEOS Annu. Meeting (2000) pp. 434-435.

S. H. Cho, S. Fox, J. H. Song, Y. Hu, Z. F. Fan, F. G. Johnson, D. Stone, G. Erbert, F. Bugge, M. Dagenais, "High power near diffraction limited external cavity single-angled facet tapered lasers, tunable from 1.505 to 1.565 µm and 0.795 to 0.855 µm with high spectral purity," Proc. Conf. LEOS Annu. Meeting (1998) pp. 348-349.

A. Leroy, H. Helmers, H. Bissessur, G. Michaud, C. Duchemin, J.-L. Lafragette, S. Hubert, B. Thedrez, S. Rabaron, J. Jacquet, W. Heck, L. Lablonde, M. Boitel, "Less than 36 pm wavelength drift over [0, 50°C range with low-cost plug and play lasers with a-thermal wavelength selection in the connector," Proc. Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. Tech. Dig. Series (2001) pp. WC6/1-WC6/3.

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