Abstract

Two types of three-dimensional (3-D) optical circuits based on waveguide films are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Type 1 is “Stacked waveguide films with 45° mirrors.” Waveguide films with 70-μm-thick undercladding layers and 32-μm-wide cores with air cladding are fabricated by the built-in mask method using photo-definable materials. The films are stacked by contacting their undercladding layers. Optical Z-connections are formed by aligning the 45° mirrors in upper and lower films. The mirror-to-mirror distance is ~170 μm. When a probe beam of 650 nm or 1.3 μm in wavelength is introduced into input in the first film, it is transmitted to the second film through optical Z-connection and is observed at output. Loss at the optical Z-connection for 1.3-μm wavelength is ~14 dB, which might be due to leakage of probe beams reflected from the mirror with large diverging angles. Type 2 is “Waveguide films with vertical waveguides.” After coating a photo-refractive layer of 500-μm thickness on the back of a cladding layer of a waveguide film, a 405-nm wavelength write beam is introduced into input. Then, a vertical waveguide of 3-D self-organized lightwave network (3-D SOLNET) is grown in the photo-refractive layer above a 45° mirror. A probe beam guided in the vertical waveguide is observed with a beam size close to that in the core of the waveguide film. Loss reduction at the optical Z-connection is expected by combining optical circuits of Types 1 and 2 to insert the 3-D SOLNET between waveguide films as well as by decreasing cladding layer thicknesses.

© 2006 IEEE

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  22. F. Huang, H. Takase, Y. Eriyama, T. Ukachi, "Single-mode optical fiber interconnection by using self-written waveguides," Proc. 12th Int. POF. Conf. (2003) pp. 199-202.

2006 (4)

C. Berger, B. Offrein, M. Schmatz, "Challenges for the introduction of board-level optical interconnect technology into product development roadmaps," Proc. SPIE 6124, 61240J-1-61240J-12 (2006).

E.-H. Lee, S. G. Lee, B. H. O, S. G. Park, K. H. Kim, "Fabrication of a hybrid electrical-optical printed circuit board (EO-PCB) by lamination of an optical printed circuit board (O-PCB) and an electrical printed circuit board (E-PCB)," Proc. SPIE 6126, 61260L-1-61260L-10 (2006).

A. Glebov, M. G. Lee, D. Kudzuma, J. Roman, M. Peters, L. Huang, S. Zhou, "Integrated waveguide microoptic elements for 3D routing in board-level optical interconnects," Proc. SPIE 6126, 61260L-1-61260L1-10 (2006).

T. Yoshimura, Y. Suzuki, N. Shimoda, T. Kofudo, K. Okada, Y. Arai, K. Asama, "Three-dimensional chip-scale optical interconnects and switches with self-organized wiring based on device-embedded waveguide films and molecular nanotechnologies," Proc. SPIE 6126, 612609-1-612609-15 (2006).

2005 (2)

T. Yoshimura, A. Hori, Y. Yoshida, Y. Arai, H. Kurokawa, T. Namiki, K. Asama, "Coupling efficiencies in reflective self-organized lightwave network (R-SOLNET) simulated by the beam propagation method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1653-1655 (2005).

T. Inoguchi, S. Moriya, T. Yamamoto, Y. Arai, T. Yoshimura, K. Asama, "Film waveguides with micro mirrors for three-dimensional optical circuits fabricated by the built-in mask method," JapaneseJ. Japan Institute of Electronics Packaging 8, 237-242 (2005).

2004 (3)

B. S. Rho, S. Kang, H. S. Cho, H.-H. Park, S.-W. Ha, B.-H. Rhee, "PCB-compatible optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods and via-holed waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2128-2134 (2004).

T. Yoshimura, T. Inoguchi, T. Yamamoto, S. Moriya, Y. Teramoto, Y. Arai, T. Namiki, K. Asama, "Self-organized lightwave network based on waveguide films for three-dimensional optical wiring within boxes," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2091-2100 (2004).

C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Choi, L. Wang, D. Haas, J. Magera, R. T. Chen, "Flexible optical waveguide film fabrications and optoelectronic devices integration for fully embedded board-level optical interconnects," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2168-2176 (2004).

2003 (5)

H. Takahara, "Optoelectronic multichip module packaging technologies and optical input/output interface chip-level packages for the next generation of hardware systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 443-451 (2003).

T. Mikawa, M. Kinoshita, K. Hiruma, T. Ishitsuka, M. Okabe, S. Hiramatsu, H. Furuyama, T. Matsui, K. Kumai, O. Ibaragi, M. Bonkohara, "Implementation of active interposer for high-speed and low-cost chip level optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 452-459 (2003).

M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, M. J. McFadden, M. W. Haney, "Multiscale optical design for global chip-to-chip optical interconnections and misalignment tolerant packaging," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 548-556 (2003).

N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, S. Cho, S. ilkinson, M. Vrazel, S. Fike, J. Tabler, Y. J. Joo, S. Seo, D. S. Wils, A. Brown, "The heterogeneous integration of optical interconnections into integrated microsystems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 350-360 (2003).

T. Yoshimura, M. Ojima, Y. Arai, K. Asama, "Three-dimensional self-organized micro optoelectronic systems for board-level reconfigurable optical interconnects—Performance modeling and simulation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 492-511 (2003).

1999 (1)

T. Yoshimura, J. Roman, Y. Takahashi, S. I. Beilin, W. V. Wang, M. Inao, "Optoelectronic amplifier/driver-less substrate 〈OE-ADLES〉 for polymer-waveguide-based board-level interconnection -calculation of delay and power dissipation-," Nonlinear Opt. 22, 453-456 (1999).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (5)

H. Takahara, "Optoelectronic multichip module packaging technologies and optical input/output interface chip-level packages for the next generation of hardware systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 443-451 (2003).

T. Mikawa, M. Kinoshita, K. Hiruma, T. Ishitsuka, M. Okabe, S. Hiramatsu, H. Furuyama, T. Matsui, K. Kumai, O. Ibaragi, M. Bonkohara, "Implementation of active interposer for high-speed and low-cost chip level optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 452-459 (2003).

M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, M. J. McFadden, M. W. Haney, "Multiscale optical design for global chip-to-chip optical interconnections and misalignment tolerant packaging," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 548-556 (2003).

N. M. Jokerst, M. A. Brooke, S. Cho, S. ilkinson, M. Vrazel, S. Fike, J. Tabler, Y. J. Joo, S. Seo, D. S. Wils, A. Brown, "The heterogeneous integration of optical interconnections into integrated microsystems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 350-360 (2003).

T. Yoshimura, M. Ojima, Y. Arai, K. Asama, "Three-dimensional self-organized micro optoelectronic systems for board-level reconfigurable optical interconnects—Performance modeling and simulation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 492-511 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Yoshimura, A. Hori, Y. Yoshida, Y. Arai, H. Kurokawa, T. Namiki, K. Asama, "Coupling efficiencies in reflective self-organized lightwave network (R-SOLNET) simulated by the beam propagation method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1653-1655 (2005).

J. Japan Institute of Electronics Packaging (1)

T. Inoguchi, S. Moriya, T. Yamamoto, Y. Arai, T. Yoshimura, K. Asama, "Film waveguides with micro mirrors for three-dimensional optical circuits fabricated by the built-in mask method," JapaneseJ. Japan Institute of Electronics Packaging 8, 237-242 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

T. Yoshimura, T. Inoguchi, T. Yamamoto, S. Moriya, Y. Teramoto, Y. Arai, T. Namiki, K. Asama, "Self-organized lightwave network based on waveguide films for three-dimensional optical wiring within boxes," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2091-2100 (2004).

C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Choi, L. Wang, D. Haas, J. Magera, R. T. Chen, "Flexible optical waveguide film fabrications and optoelectronic devices integration for fully embedded board-level optical interconnects," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2168-2176 (2004).

B. S. Rho, S. Kang, H. S. Cho, H.-H. Park, S.-W. Ha, B.-H. Rhee, "PCB-compatible optical interconnection using 45°-ended connection rods and via-holed waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2128-2134 (2004).

Nonlinear Opt. (1)

T. Yoshimura, J. Roman, Y. Takahashi, S. I. Beilin, W. V. Wang, M. Inao, "Optoelectronic amplifier/driver-less substrate 〈OE-ADLES〉 for polymer-waveguide-based board-level interconnection -calculation of delay and power dissipation-," Nonlinear Opt. 22, 453-456 (1999).

Proc. SPIE (4)

T. Yoshimura, Y. Suzuki, N. Shimoda, T. Kofudo, K. Okada, Y. Arai, K. Asama, "Three-dimensional chip-scale optical interconnects and switches with self-organized wiring based on device-embedded waveguide films and molecular nanotechnologies," Proc. SPIE 6126, 612609-1-612609-15 (2006).

C. Berger, B. Offrein, M. Schmatz, "Challenges for the introduction of board-level optical interconnect technology into product development roadmaps," Proc. SPIE 6124, 61240J-1-61240J-12 (2006).

E.-H. Lee, S. G. Lee, B. H. O, S. G. Park, K. H. Kim, "Fabrication of a hybrid electrical-optical printed circuit board (EO-PCB) by lamination of an optical printed circuit board (O-PCB) and an electrical printed circuit board (E-PCB)," Proc. SPIE 6126, 61260L-1-61260L-10 (2006).

A. Glebov, M. G. Lee, D. Kudzuma, J. Roman, M. Peters, L. Huang, S. Zhou, "Integrated waveguide microoptic elements for 3D routing in board-level optical interconnects," Proc. SPIE 6126, 61260L-1-61260L1-10 (2006).

Other (7)

T. Yoshimura, J. Roman, Y. Takahashi, M. Lee, B. Chou, S. I. Beilin, W. V. Wang, M. Inao, "Proposal of optoelectronic substrate with Film/Z-connection based on OE-film," Proc. 3rd IEMT/IMC Symp. (1999) pp. 140-145.

T. Yoshimura, Y. Takahashi, M. Inao, M. Lee, W. Chou, S. Beilin, W. V. Wang, J. Roman, T. Massingill, Multi-layer opto-electronic substrates with electrical and optical interconnections and methods for making U.S. Patent 6 845 184 (2005).

T. Yoshimura, J. Roman, Y. Takahashi, W. V. Wang, M. Inao, T. Ishitsuka, K. Tsukamoto, K. Motoyoshi, W. Sotoyama, "Self-organizing waveguide coupling method “SOLNET” and its application to film optical circuit substrates," Proc. 50th ECTC (2000) pp. 962-969.

T. Yoshimura, W. Sotoyama, K. Motoyoshi, T. Ishitsuka, K. Tsukamoto, S. Tatsuura, H. Soda, T. Yamamoto, Method of producing optical waveguide system, optical device and optical coupler employing the same, optical network and optical circuit board U.S. Patent 6,081,632 (2000) (“Japanese Patent Disclosure,” Tokukaihei 8-320422, 1996).

F. Huang, H. Takase, Y. Eriyama, T. Ukachi, "Optical fiber interconnection by using self-written waveguides," Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Rad. Tech. Asia (2003) pp. 637-639.

F. Huang, H. Takase, Y. Eriyama, T. Ukachi, "Single-mode optical fiber interconnection by using self-written waveguides," Proc. 12th Int. POF. Conf. (2003) pp. 199-202.

D. A. B. Miller, "How large a system can we build without optics? Workshop notes," Proc. 8th Annu. Workshop Interconnections Within High Speed Digital Syst. (1997).

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