Abstract

In this paper, the response of a tapered optical fiber humidity sensor is optimized, attending to the thickness of the sensitive coating, the dimensions of the taper, the light source, and the utilization of sensitive materials with different refractive indexes. The main novelty of this study is that the thickness of the sensitive layer is on the order of magnitude of the light wavelength used to excite the sensor. It is shown here that an estimation of the sensor sensitivity can be deducted from the transmitted optical power curve obtained during the layer-by-layer construction process. Theoretical and experimental results are presented.

© 2006 IEEE

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Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Bariain, I. R. Matias, I. Romero, J. Garrido, M. Laguna, "Detection of volatile organic compound vapors by using a vapochromic material on a tapered optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2274-2276 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

P. Pilla, A. Iadicieco, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, G. Guerra, A. Cusano, "Optical chemo-sensor based on long period gratings coated with delta form syndiotactic polystyrene," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713-1715 (2005).

J. M. Corres, J. Bravo, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, "Non-adiabatic tapered single-mode fiber coated with humidity sensitive nanofilms," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 935-937 (2006).

T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, C. N. Pannel, "Low power acousto-optic device based on a tapered single mode fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 725-727 (1994).

IEEE Sensors J.

I. Del Villar, I. R. Matías, F. J. Arregui, R. O. Claus, "Fiber-optic hydrogen peroxide nanosensor," IEEE Sensors J. 5, 365-371 (2005).

F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matías, K. L. Cooper, R. O. Claus, "Simultaneous measurement of humidity and temperature by combining a reflective intensity-based optical fiber sensor and a fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Sensors J. 2, 482-487 (2002).

IEICE Trans. Electron.

F. J. Arregui, K. L. Cooper, Y. Liu, I. R. Matías, R. O. Claus, "Optical fiber humidity sensor with a fast response time using the ionic self-assembly method," IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 360-365 (2000).

J. Lightw. Technol.

L. C. Bobb, P. M. Shankar, H. D. Krumboltz, "Bending effects in biconically tapered single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1084-1090 (1990).

K. Oh, S. Choi, Y. Jung, J. W. Lee, "Novel hollow optical fibers and their applications in photonic devices for optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 524-532 (2005).

P. M. Shankar, L. C. Bobb, H. D. Krumboltz, "Coupling of modes in bent biconically tapered single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 832-837 (1991).

F. J. Arregui, R. O. Claus, K. L. Cooper, C. Fernández-Valdivielso, I. R. Matías, "Optical fiber gas sensor based on self-assembled gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1932-1937 (2001).

J. Bravo, I. R. Matias, I. Del Villar, J. M. Corres, F. J. Arregui, "Nanofilms on hollow core fiber-based structures: An optical study," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2100-2107 (2006).

A. J. Fielding, K. Edinger, C. C. Davis, "Experimental observation of mode evolution in single-mode tapered optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1649-1656 (1999).

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

H. S. Haddock, P. M. Shankar, R. Mutharasan, "Fabrication of biconical tapered optical fibers using hydrofluoric acid," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 97, 87-93 (2003).

Opt. Eng.

M. Shadaram, L. Espada, J. Martinez, F. Garcia, "Modeling and performance evaluation of ferrocene-based polymer clad tapered optical fiber gas sensors," Opt. Eng. 37, 1124-1129 (1998).

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.-J.

R. J. Black, R. Bourbonnais, "Core-mode cutoff for finite-cladding lightguides," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.-J. 133, 277-384 (1986).

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, "Tapered single-mode fibers and devices. Part 1: Adiabatic criteria," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.-J. 138, 343-353 (1991).

Sens. Actuators B, Chem.

Y. Sakai, Y. Sadaoka, M. Matsuguchi, "Humidity sensors based on polymer thin films," Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 35, 85 (1996).

A. Díez, M. V. Andrés, J. L. Cruz, "In-line fiber optic sensors based on the excitation of surface plasma modes in metal-coated tapered fibers," Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 73, 95-99 (2001).

Y. Sadaoka, Y. Sakai, Y. Murata, "Optical humidity and ammonia gas sensor using calcein-based films," Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 13/14, 420-423 (1993).

M. Ando, T. Kobayashi, M. Haruta, "Humidity-sensitive optical absorption of Co3O4 film," Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 32, 157-160 (1996).

J. M. Meanna Perez, C. Freire, "A poly(ethyleneterepthalate)-based humidity sensor," Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 42, 27-30 (1997).

C. Bariain, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, M. Lopez-Amo, "Optical fiber humidity sensor based on a tapered fiber coated with agarose gel," Sens. Actuators B, Chem. 69, 127-131 (2000).

Solid State Technol.

J. McAndrew, R. Inman, A. Halder, P. Gillespie, J. L. Brookshire, "Increasing equipment uptime through in situ moisture monitoring," Solid State Technol. 41, 61-71 (1998).

Other

A. Raichur, H. Pedersen, "Fiber optic moisture sensor for baking and drying process control," Proc. Food Process. Autom. IV, Amer. Soc. Agric. Eng. (1995) pp. 180-189.

Y. Jung, S. Kim, D. S. Lee, K. Oh, "Compact three segmented multimode fiber modal interferometer for high sensitivity refractive-index measurement," Proc. SPIE 17th Int. Conf. Opt. Fiber Sens. (2005) pp. 150-153.

Multilayer Thin Films: Sequential Assembly of Nanocomposite Materials (Wiley, 2003).

Fimmwave, Oxford, U.K.: Photon Design Ltd., 34 Leopold St, OX4 1TW. [Online]. Available: www.photond.com

E. G. Neuman, Single Mode Fibers: Fundamentals (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

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