Abstract

In this paper, two vulnerabilities that allow an eavesdropper to extract data from an isolated user in a two-code-keying spectrally phase-coded optical-code-division-multiple-access (O-CDMA) system are experimentally demonstrated. One of these vulnerabilities stems from spectral dips that result from phase-to-amplitude conversion in the encoding process, which allows eavesdropping by using a narrowband tunable optical filter and a simple energy detector. A modified O-CDMA transmitter scheme that masks this vulnerability is demonstrated. A second, especially serious, vulnerability allows eavesdropping by using a differential-phase-shift-keying receiver. Both of these vulnerabilities arise from a structure in the coding and signaling schemes that allow an eavesdropper to recover data, with relatively simple hardware and without attempting to learn the codes.

© 2006 IEEE

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Electron. Lett. (1)

D. E. Leaird, Z. Jiang, A. M. Weiner, "Experimental investigation of security issues in OCDMA: A code-switching scheme," Electron. Lett. 41, 817-819 (2005).

Fiber Int. Opt. (1)

D. D. Sampson, G. J. Pendock, R. A. Griffin, "Photonic code-division multiple-access communications," Fiber Int. Opt. 16, 129-157 (1997).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. N. Thurston, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, W. J. Tomlinson, "Analysis of picosecond pulse shape synthesis by spectral masking in a grating pulse compressor," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 682-696 (1986).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, K. Kitayama, "Highly spectral-efficient optical code-division multiplexing transmission system," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 250-258 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

Z. Jiang, D. S. Seo, S.-D. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Weiner, "Four user, 10 Gb/s spectrally phase coded O-CDMA system operating at ~30 fJ/bit," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 705-707 (2005).

S. Etemad, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, J. Young, T. Banwell, S. Galli, J. Jackel, P. Delfyett, C. Price, T. Turpin, "Spectrally efficient optical CDMA using coherent phase-frequency coding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 929-931 (2005).

P. C. Teh, M. Ibsen, J. H. Lee, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, "Demonstration of a four-channel WDM/OCDMA system using 255-chip 320-Gchips/s quaternary phase coding gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 227-229 (2002).

V. Baby, I. Glesk, R. J. Runser, R. Fischer, Y. K. Huang, C. S. Bres, W. C. Kwong, T. H. Curtis, P. R. Prucnal, "Experimental demonstration and scalability analysis of a four-node 102-Gchip/s fast frequency-hopping time-spreading optical CDMA network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 253-255 (2005).

E. Ciaramella, G. Contestabile, A. D'Errico, "A novel scheme to detect optical DPSK signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2138-2140 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

Z. Jiang, D. S. Seo, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, "Reconfigurable all-optical code translation in spectrally phase coded O-CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1979-1990 (2005).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

Z. Jiang, D. S. Seo, S.-D. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, A. M. Weiner, "Four user, 2.5 Gb/s, spectrally coded O-CDMA system demonstration using low power nonlinear processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 143-158 (2005).

R. P. Scott, W. Cong, V. J. Hernandez, K. B. Li, B. H. Kolner, J. P. Heritage, S. J. B. Yoo, "An eight-user time-slotted SPECTS O-CDMA testbed: Demonstration and simulations," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3232-3240 (2005).

T. H. Shake, "Security performance of optical CDMA against eavesdropping," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 655-670 (2005).

T. H. Shake, "Confidentiality performance of spectral-phase-encoded optical CDMA," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1652-1663 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).

Other (1)

X. Wang, N. Wada, T. Hamanaka, K. Kitayama, A. Nishiki, "10-user, truly-asynchronous OCDMA experiment with 511-chip SSFBG en/decoder and SC-based optical thresholder," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC), Anaheim, CA, 2005, Paper PDP33.

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