Abstract

The control of the state of polarization (SOP) of light remains one of the open issues in optical communications. In particular, the achievement of a stabilization of the SOP can find many applications in advanced optical communication systems: from the mitigation of polarization-mode dispersion to the development of novel multilevel modulation formats. In this paper, theoretical and experimental aspects of polarization stabilization are dealt with, and a novel algorithm to overcome the issues related to the practical availability of finite-range birefringent components and to solve the requirement for endless stabilization is also presented. A complete analysis of the control algorithm, based on the Jones matrix formalism, is also presented. The practical implementation of the polarization stabilizer is discussed, and experimental demonstrations based on liquid crystal and magnetooptical retarders are shown.

© 2006 IEEE

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  26. H. Shimizu, K. Kaede, "Endless polarization controller using electro-optic waveplates," Electron. Lett. 24, 412-413 (1988).
  27. F. Heismann, M. S. Whalen, "Broadband reset-free automatic polarization controller," Electron. Lett. 27, 377-379 (1991).
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  31. R. Noé, "Endless polarisation control experiment with three elements of limited birefringence," Electron. Lett. 22, 1341-1343 (1986).
  32. N. G. Walker, G. R. Walker, "Endless polarisation control using four fibre squeezers," Electron. Lett. 22, 290-292 (1987).
  33. C. J. Mahon, G. D. Kohe, "Endless polarisation state matching control experiment using two controllers of finite control range," Electron. Lett. 23, 1234-1235 (1987).
  34. W. H. J. Aarts, G. D. Kohe, "New endless polarization control method using three fiber squeezers," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1033-1043 (1989).
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  36. H. Shimizu, S. Yamazaki, T. Ono, K. Emura, "Highly practical fiber squeezer polarization controller," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1217-1224 (1991).
  37. J. Prat, J. Comellas, G. Junyent, "Experimental demonstration of an all-fiber endless polarization controller based on Faraday rotation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1430-1432 (1995).
  38. R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems—I. Description and discussion of the calculus," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 31, 488-493 (1941).
  39. K. Ikeda, T. Takagi, T. Hatano, H. Kazami, Y. Mimura, H. Matsuura, "Endless tracking polarization controller," Furukawa Rev. 32-38 (2003).
  40. T. Saitoh, S. Kinugawa, "Magnetic field rotating-type Faraday polarization controller," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1430-1432 (2003).
  41. H. G. Jerrard, "Modern description of polarized light: Matrix methods," Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 309-319 (1982).

Electron. Lett. (11)

T. Imai, K. Nosu, H. Yamaguchi, "Optical polarisation control utilising an optical heterodyne detection scheme," Electron. Lett. 21, 52-53 (1985).

C. D. Poole, R. E. Wagner, "Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single-mode fibres," Electron. Lett. 22, 1029-1030 (1986).

F. Heismann, P. B. Hansen, S. K. Korotky, G. Raybon, J. J. Veselka, M. S. Whalen, "Automatic polarization demultiplexer for polarization-multiplexed transmission systems," Electron. Lett. 29, 1965-1966 (1993).

L. J. Rysdale, "Method of overcoming finite-range limitation of certain state of polarisation control devices in automatic polarisation control schemes," Electron. Lett. 22, 100-102 (1986).

R. Noé, "Endless polarisation control in coherent optical communications," Electron. Lett. 22, 772-773 (1986).

R. Noé, "Endless polarisation control experiment with three elements of limited birefringence," Electron. Lett. 22, 1341-1343 (1986).

N. G. Walker, G. R. Walker, "Endless polarisation control using four fibre squeezers," Electron. Lett. 22, 290-292 (1987).

C. J. Mahon, G. D. Kohe, "Endless polarisation state matching control experiment using two controllers of finite control range," Electron. Lett. 23, 1234-1235 (1987).

T. Matsumoto, H. Kano, "Endlessly rotatable fractional-wave devices for single-mode fiber optics," Electron. Lett. 22, 78-79 (1986).

H. Shimizu, K. Kaede, "Endless polarization controller using electro-optic waveplates," Electron. Lett. 24, 412-413 (1988).

F. Heismann, M. S. Whalen, "Broadband reset-free automatic polarization controller," Electron. Lett. 27, 377-379 (1991).

Furukawa Rev. (1)

K. Ikeda, T. Takagi, T. Hatano, H. Kazami, Y. Mimura, H. Matsuura, "Endless tracking polarization controller," Furukawa Rev. 32-38 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

T. Saitoh, S. Kinugawa, "Magnetic field rotating-type Faraday polarization controller," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1430-1432 (2003).

J. Prat, J. Comellas, G. Junyent, "Experimental demonstration of an all-fiber endless polarization controller based on Faraday rotation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1430-1432 (1995).

P. M. Hill, R. Olshansky, W. K. Burns, "Optical polarization division multiplexing at 4 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 500-502 (1992).

C. D. Poole, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, D. A. Fishman, "Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization-mode dispersion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 68-70 (1991).

J. Lightw. Technol. (15)

H. Sunnerud, C. Xie, M. Karlsson, R. Samuelson, P. A. Andrekson, "A comparison between different PMD compensation techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 368-378 (2002).

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, A. Pizzinat, "Optimized design for low PMD fibers: An analytical approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1502-1512 (2001).

M.-J. Li, X. Chen, D. A. Nolan, "Fibers with low polarization-mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1066-1077 (2004).

R. Noé, S. Hinz, D. Sandel, F. Wüst, "Crosstalk detection schemes for polarization division multiplex transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1469-1475 (2001).

C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, H. J. Schulte, "Polarization dispersion and principal states in a 147 km undersea lightwave cable," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1185-1190 (1988).

F. Curti, B. Daino, G. De Marchis, F. Matera, "Statistical treatment of the evolution of the principal states of polarization in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1162-1166 (1990).

G. J. Foschini, C. D. Poole, "Statistical theory of polarization dispersion in single mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1439-1456 (1991).

T. Okoshi, "Polarization-state control schemes for heterodyne or homodyne optical fiber communications," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 1232-1237 (1985).

R. Noé, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffmann, "Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1199-1207 (1988).

N. G. Walker, G. R. Walker, "Polarization control for coherent communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 438-458 (1990).

T. Chiba, Y. Ohtera, S. Kawakami, "Polarization stabilizer using liquid crystal rotatable waveplates," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 885-890 (1999).

D. S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, K. Kikuchi, "Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase-shift keying signals with carrier phase estimation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 12-21 (2006).

W. H. J. Aarts, G. D. Kohe, "New endless polarization control method using three fiber squeezers," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1033-1043 (1989).

S. H. Rumbaugh, M. D. Jones, L. W. Casperson, "Polarization control for coherent fiber-optic systems using nematic liquid crystals," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 459-465 (1990).

H. Shimizu, S. Yamazaki, T. Ono, K. Emura, "Highly practical fiber squeezer polarization controller," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1217-1224 (1991).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (3)

G. N. Ramachandran, S. Ramaseshan, "Magneto-optic rotation in birefringent media—Application of the Poincaré sphere," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 42, 49-56 (1952).

H. G. Jerrard, "Transmission of light through birefringent and optically active media: The Poincaré sphere," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 44, 634-640 (1954).

R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems—I. Description and discussion of the calculus," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 31, 488-493 (1941).

Opt. Commun. (2)

V. Napasab, T. Okoshi, "New polarization-state control scheme: Polarization recombining," Opt. Commun. 66, 83-87 (1988).

M. Martinelli, P. Vavassori, "A geometric (Pancharatnam) phase approach to the polarization and phase control in the coherent optics circuits," Opt. Commun. 80, 166-176 (1990).

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

H. G. Jerrard, "Modern description of polarized light: Matrix methods," Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 309-319 (1982).

Other (4)

L. G. Kazovsky, "Homodyne phase-shift-keying systems; past challenges and future opportunities," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, 2005, Paper OTuL3.

D. Sarchi, G. Roba, "PMD mitigation through constant spinning and twist control: Experimental results," Proc. OFC (2003) pp. 367-368.

F. Heismann, D. A. Fishman, D. L. Wilson, "Automatic compensation of first-order polarization mode dispersion in a 10 Gb/s transmission system," Proc. ECOC (1998) pp. 529-530.

H. Bülow, "PMD mitigation techniques and their effectiveness in installed fiber," Proc. OFC (2000) pp. 110-112.

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