Abstract

Spun fibers are one of the most viable solutions to polarization mode dispersion. In this paper, their polarization properties are reviewed with special emphasis on randomly birefringent strongly spun fibers. The analysis is carried out by means of a new simplified model, which applies to a wide range of spin profiles that are either deterministic or random. It is shown that in general, a strongly spun fiber is characterized by an apparent random linear birefringence and an apparent deterministic circular birefringence. The latter term may originate unusual polarization properties; yet, in some cases of practical interest, it is equal to zero, and when this happens, the strongly spun fiber has the same statistical properties of an unspun one.

© 2006 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. A. J. Barlow, J. J. Ramskov-Hansen, D. N. Payne, "Birefringence and polarization mode-dispersion in spun single-mode fibers," Appl. Opt. 20, 2962-2968 (1981).
  2. Method of making a fiber having low polarization mode dispersion due to a permanent spin U.S. Patent 5 298 047 (1994).
  3. M. J. Li, D. A. Nolan, "Fiber spin-profile designs for producing fibers with low polarization mode dispersion," Opt. Lett. 23, 1659-1661 (1998).
  4. R. E. Schuh, X. Shan, A. S. Siddiqui, "Polarization mode dispersion in spun fibers with different linear birefringence and spinning parameters," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1583-1588 (1998).
  5. J. G. Ellison, A. S. Siddiqui, "Using polarimetric optical time domain reflectometry to estimate linear birefringence suppression in spun fibre," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. 146, 137-141 (1999).
  6. J. G. Ellison, A. S. Siddiqui, "Using polarimetric optical time domain reflectometry to extract spun fibre parameters," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. 148, 176-182 (2001).
  7. A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, A. Pizzinat, "Optimized spinning design for low PMD fibers: An analytical approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1502-1512 (2001).
  8. A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, A. Pizzinat, L. Palmieri, "Calculation of mean differential group delay of periodically spun randomly birefringent fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 692-694 (2002).
  9. X. Chen, M.-J. Li, D. A. Nolan, "Polarization mode dispersion of spun fibers: An analytical solution," Opt. Lett. 27, 294-296 (2002).
  10. A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, A. Pizzinat, B. S. Marks, C. R. Menyuk, "An analytical formula for the mean differential group delay of randomly-birefringent spun fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1635-1643 (2003).
  11. A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, L. Palmieri, A. Pizzinat, "Polarization mode dispersion properties of constantly spun randomly birefringence fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1639-1641 (2003).
  12. A. Pizzinat, B. S. Marks, L. Palmieri, C. R. Menyuk, A. Galtarossa, "Influence of the model for random birefringence on the differential group delay of periodically spun fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 819-821 (2003).
  13. A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, D. Sarchi, "Measure of spin period in randomly-birefringent low-PMD fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1131-1133 (2004).
  14. A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, L. Palmieri, A. Pizzinat, "First- and second-order PMD statistical properties of constantly spun randomly birefringent fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1127-1136 (2004).
  15. G. Bouquet, L.-A. de Montmorillon, P. Nouchi, "Analytical solution of polarization mode dispersion for triangular spun fibers," Opt. Lett. 29, 2118-2120 (2004).
  16. A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, A. Pizzinat, L. Schenato, "Polarization properties of randomly-birefringent spun fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 205-216 (2006).
  17. S. C. Rashleigh, R. Ulrich, "Polarization mode dispersion in single-mode fibers," Opt. Lett. 3, 60-62 (1978).
  18. C. D. Poole, J. H. Winters, J. A. Nagel, "Dynamical equation for polarization dispersion," Opt. Lett. 6, 372-374 (1991).
  19. S. C. Rashleigh, "Origins and control of polarization effect in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-1, 312-331 (1983).
  20. C. D. Poole, J. Nagel, Optical Fiber Telecommunications (Academic, 1997).
  21. H. Kogelnik, R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, Optical Fiber Telecommunications (Academic, 2002).
  22. Polarization Mode Dispersion (Springer-Verlag, 2005).
  23. A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, L. Schenato, "A simplified phenomenological model for randomly-birefringent strongly-spun fibers," Opt. Lett. 31, 2275-2277 (2006).
  24. P. K. A. Wai, C. R. Menyuk, "Polarization mode dispersion, decorrelation, and diffusion in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 148-157 (1996).
  25. G. C. Papanicolaou, W. Kohler, "Asymptotic theory of mixing stochastic ordinary differential equation," Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 27, 641-668 (1974).
  26. R. Ulrich, A. Simon, "Polarization optics of twisted single-mode fibers," Appl. Opt. 18, 2241-2251 (1979).
  27. A. Simon, R. Ulrich, "Evolution of polarization along a single-mode fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 517-520 (1977).
  28. A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, M. Schiano, T. Tambosso, "Measurement of birefringence correlation length in long single-mode fibers," Opt. Lett. 26, 962-964 (2001).
  29. A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, "Measure of twist-induced circular birefringence in long single-mode fibers: Theory and experiments," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1149-1159 (2002).
  30. J. A. Murdock, Perturbations: Theory and Methods (Wiley, 1991).
  31. M. Karlsson, J. Brentel, "Autocorrelation function of the polarization-mode dispersion vector," Opt. Lett. 24, 939-941 (1999).
  32. C. W. Gardiner, Handbook of Stochastic Methods (Springer-Verlag, 1985).
  33. Mathematica 4, Champaign, IL: Wolfram Research, Champaign, IL.
  34. B. Øksendal, Stochastic Differential Equations (Springer-Verlag, 2000).
  35. A. Friedman, Stochastic Differential Equation and Applications (Academic, 1975).
  36. A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, "Theoretical analysis of reflectometric measurements in optical fiber links affected by polarization dependent loss," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1233-1241 (2003).
  37. A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, "Spatially resolved PMD measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1103-1115 (2004).
  38. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992).
  39. A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, 1991).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Simon, R. Ulrich, "Evolution of polarization along a single-mode fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 517-520 (1977).

Commun. Pure Appl. Math. (1)

G. C. Papanicolaou, W. Kohler, "Asymptotic theory of mixing stochastic ordinary differential equation," Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 27, 641-668 (1974).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Pizzinat, B. S. Marks, L. Palmieri, C. R. Menyuk, A. Galtarossa, "Influence of the model for random birefringence on the differential group delay of periodically spun fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 819-821 (2003).

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, D. Sarchi, "Measure of spin period in randomly-birefringent low-PMD fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1131-1133 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (9)

A. Galtarossa, P. Griggio, L. Palmieri, A. Pizzinat, "First- and second-order PMD statistical properties of constantly spun randomly birefringent fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1127-1136 (2004).

S. C. Rashleigh, "Origins and control of polarization effect in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-1, 312-331 (1983).

R. E. Schuh, X. Shan, A. S. Siddiqui, "Polarization mode dispersion in spun fibers with different linear birefringence and spinning parameters," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1583-1588 (1998).

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, A. Pizzinat, "Optimized spinning design for low PMD fibers: An analytical approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1502-1512 (2001).

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, A. Pizzinat, B. S. Marks, C. R. Menyuk, "An analytical formula for the mean differential group delay of randomly-birefringent spun fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1635-1643 (2003).

P. K. A. Wai, C. R. Menyuk, "Polarization mode dispersion, decorrelation, and diffusion in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 148-157 (1996).

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, "Theoretical analysis of reflectometric measurements in optical fiber links affected by polarization dependent loss," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1233-1241 (2003).

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, "Spatially resolved PMD measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1103-1115 (2004).

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, "Measure of twist-induced circular birefringence in long single-mode fibers: Theory and experiments," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1149-1159 (2002).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, A. Pizzinat, L. Schenato, "Polarization properties of randomly-birefringent spun fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 205-216 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (10)

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. (2)

J. G. Ellison, A. S. Siddiqui, "Using polarimetric optical time domain reflectometry to estimate linear birefringence suppression in spun fibre," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. 146, 137-141 (1999).

J. G. Ellison, A. S. Siddiqui, "Using polarimetric optical time domain reflectometry to extract spun fibre parameters," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. 148, 176-182 (2001).

Other (11)

Method of making a fiber having low polarization mode dispersion due to a permanent spin U.S. Patent 5 298 047 (1994).

C. D. Poole, J. Nagel, Optical Fiber Telecommunications (Academic, 1997).

H. Kogelnik, R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, Optical Fiber Telecommunications (Academic, 2002).

Polarization Mode Dispersion (Springer-Verlag, 2005).

C. W. Gardiner, Handbook of Stochastic Methods (Springer-Verlag, 1985).

Mathematica 4, Champaign, IL: Wolfram Research, Champaign, IL.

B. Øksendal, Stochastic Differential Equations (Springer-Verlag, 2000).

A. Friedman, Stochastic Differential Equation and Applications (Academic, 1975).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992).

A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, 1991).

J. A. Murdock, Perturbations: Theory and Methods (Wiley, 1991).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.